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1. Originally the trunk of a tree with its branches lopped off, left standing in the ground as a stump or sunk in it: in a wooden fortification described by Caesar (Caes. Gal. 7.73) the cippi are further sharpened to a point and serve as chevaux de frise.

2. From the similarity of form, a low column of stone, sometimes round, more often rectangular. Stone cippi were set up by the Agrimensores to mark the divisions of lands, and are mentioned in the gromatic writers (Hygin. de Gener. Controv. p. 127, Lachmann; Sic. Flacc. de Condic. Agr. p. 138 ff.; Lib. Coloniar. i. pp. 211, 218, 221, 222; cf. AGRIMENSORES p. 83b). The most frequent use of the cippus, however, was as a sepulchral monument. Such cippi are among the commonest finds of the excavator, and are to be seen in the local museums of most Roman cities, as for instance at Bath. Several fine specimens are in the Townley collection at the British Museum, one of which is given in the first of the following woodcuts. The inscription

Cippus. (British Museum.)

is to the memory of Viria Primitiva, wife of L. Virius Helius, who died at the age of eighteen years, one month, and twenty-four days. Our second example is from a cippus preserved in the Vatican Museum. As features common to the two, and therefore probably characteristic of these monuments in general, we may notice the festoons of fruit and flowers suspended from rams' heads at the corners, and the sphinxes below; between the latter we see in the one instance the head of Pan, in the other a Nereid riding upon a sea-monster. The letters D. M. in the first cut are explained by the DIS MANIBUS which form the sole inscription on the second. On several cippi we find the letters s. T. T. L., that is, sit tibi terra levis (cf. Pers. Sat. 1.37). These two uses of the cippus, as a boundary and a tombstone, were often combined; it was usual to inscribe on it the extent of the burying

Cippus. (In the Vatican.)

ground both along the road (in fronte) and in depth (in agrum), and likewise the words hoc monumentum heredes non sequitur; in order that it might not pass over to the heredes and be sold by them at any time. (Hor. Sat. 1.8, 12, 13; Orelli, Inscr. Nos. 4379, &c.)

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