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[11] force must have been increased somewhat by the regular operations of the draft, and by the return, both of sick men restored to health under the genial influence of the season and of the men recovering from slight wounds received a month before at Chancellorsville. If that increase is difficult to appreciate, there is another element which can be easily calculated — it is the reunion of three brigades which do not appear on the return for the 31st of May. These brigades were--first, Pettigrew's, nearly 4,000 men strong (before leaving in Virginia one of its five regiments); second, Jenkins' cavalry, and third, Imboden's mixed command, numbering together more than 2,500 men.

On the other hand the effective strength of the army was reduced by the three following causes: first, detachments; second, losses in fights; third, sickness, straggling and desertion. First, detachments: Corse's brigade of Pickett's division and one regiment of Pettigrew's brigade (about 800 strong) were sent to Hanover Junction (Virginia), and later Early left one regiment to escort the prisoners from Winchester, and two others to occupy that town. These forces can be reckoned at 3,500 men. Second, losses in fights: the losses at Fleetwood, Winchester, Middleburg, Upperville and Hanover (Pennsylvania) were 1,400. Third, sickness, straggling and desertion: the reduction of the army through these causes must have been very small. The marches of the army were in average neither excessive nor continuous; the weather was fine; the roads in good order; and I have the best authority to believe that Pettigrew's brigade, by example, which was less accustomed to hard marching than the rest of the army, reached Pensylvania with at least as many men present for duty as when it crossed the Rapidan. Early's division had some of the hardest marching before it reached the Potomac, and therefore it can be taken as a fair standard of comparison. Thanks to General Early we have the elements for that comparison. On the 31st of May his division, which was the smallest but two of the army, numbered 6,943 officers and men present for duty; on the 20th of June (see Southern Magazine, September, 1872, page 318, foot-note) this figure has dwindled down to 5,638. The difference is 1,305, but that decrease must be ascribed altogether to the three above mentioned causes, viz: first, the detachment of three regiments, left at or about Winchester, at least 850; second, the loss in battle at Winchester, 162; third, therefore the reduction by sickness, straggling and desertion is only 293, unless the division should

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J. Johnston Pettigrew (3)
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