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It was at Vienna, in 1800, that he first attended a private course which Dr. Gall had repeated during the four preceding years, in order to explain to I. select audience his new theory. The dissection of the brain itself still remained imperfect until 1804, when Spurzheim became his associate, and undertook especially the anatomical department. From that time, in their public as well as private demonstrations of the brain, Spurzheim always made the dissections, and Gall explained them to the audience.

The great interest excited by these lectures roused the fears of the government of Austria; and an imperial decree, which prohibited all private lectures unless by special permission, silenced the two teachers, and induced them, in 1805, to quit Vienna. They travelled together through Germany, explaining their discoveries in the chief universities and cities. Their anatomical demonstrations were regarded with much applause. Their peculiar views on the connection of the external brain with the character met with many opponents. In 1807, they began lecturing in Paris, and large and learned audiences sometimes listened to their expositions. Cuvier is said to have received their system favorably at first, but to have been afterwards swayed by the haughtiness of the First Consul, who had seen with displeasure that the French Institute had awarded a prize medal to Sir H. Davy for his galvanic experiments, and at a levee rated the wise men of his land, for allowing themselves to be taught chemistry by an Englishman, and anatomy by a German.

In Paris the two lecturers began publishing. They remained in that city until 1813. The next year, Spurzheim went over to England, and thence to Scotland,

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