Table of Contents:
alphabetical letter ض ذ The fifteenth letter of the alphabet: called ضَادٌ: it is one of the letters termed مَجْهُورَة [or vocal, i. e. pronounced with the voice, and not with the breath only]; (TA;) and of the letters termed شَجْرِيَّة, ('Eyn, Mgh, TA,) from الشَّجْرُ, which is the place of the opening of the mouth: ('Eyn, Mgh, TA on the letter ج:) its place of utterance is from the extremity of the tongue [extended so as to reach] to the part next to the [lateral teeth called] أَضْرَاس; and it is more usually pronounced from the left side than from the right: the vulgar [sometimes] pronounce it as ظَآء, making its place of utterance to be between the extremity of the tongue and the central incisors, which pronunciation is peculiar to a dialect, as mentioned by Fr on the authority of El-Fadl: he says [also] that some of the Arabs substitute it for ظَآء, saying ضَهْر for ظَهْر; but that the doing thus, though allowable in speech, is not allowable in the reciting of the Book of God, which follows the rule, or usage, of the Prophet: (Msb in art. ضود:) or its place of utterance is from the foremost part of the edge of the tongue and the part next to the اضراس; and it has no sister [or analogue] accord. to Sb; but accord. to the 'Eyn, it is a sister of ذ and ث, and these three letters are termed لِثَوِيَّة [or gingival], because proceeding from the gum; the substitution of any of these, however, for another of them, vitiates prayers: (Mgh:) it is of the class termed الحُرُوفُ المُسْتَعْلِيَةُ: (L in art. ضود:) and is a letter peculiar to the Arabs, (L and K in that art.,) accord. to the general and correct opinion; (TA in that art.;) [whence the saying of Mohammad, أَنَا أَفْصَحُ مَنْ نَطَقَ بِالضَّادِ I am the most chaste in speech of those who have pronounced the letter dád; i. e., of the Arabs, agreeably with another saying, ascribed to him, mentioned voce بَيْدَ;] or it is a letter rarely occurring in the language of any other people. (L in that art.) ― -b2- It is always a radical letter; and is [said to be] not substituted for another letter; (L in art. ضود;) [but it is so substituted in some cases of إِِدْغَام, as, for instance, for the ل of the article ال, and in يَضَّرَّعُ for يَتَضَرَّعُ, and the like; and] it is sometimes substituted for ص, as in مَضَّ الرُّمَّانَةَ for مَصَّهَا, as Ibn-Osfoor says, and Ks mentions مَنَاضٌ for مَنَاصٌ; (TA;) and also for ل, as Ibn-Málik says in the Tes-heel, an instance of which is رَجُلٌ جَضْدٌ for جَلْدٌ, mentioned by J; (MF, TA;) and sometimes it is changed into ل, as in the instance of اِلْطَجَعَ for اِضْطَجَعَ. (S and L &c. in art. ضجع.) -A2- [As a numeral, it denotes Eight hundred.]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.
An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.