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PANAMARA (Bağyaka) Turkey.

Site in Caria 25 km W of Muğla, a dependency of Stratonikeia and home of the important sanctuary of Zeus Panamaros. Apart from a visit by Philip V, the sanctuary makes one appearance in history; when Labienus in 40 B.C. failed to capture Stratonikeia, he made an attack on Panamara, but was foiled by the miraculous intervention of the deity (Dio Cass. 48.26).

The site, on a hill above Bağyaka, comprises a rectangular enclosure ca. 100 m square, with a powerful wall of which some 80 m is preserved at the W angle. A smaller enclosure at the summit contained the sanctuary itself, but the buildings within are utterly ruined, and the temples of Zeus and Hera have not been identified. A ruined building some 20 m long in one corner is also of unknown purpose. The principal festivals celebrated at Panamara were the Panamareia, the Komyria, and the Heraia.


BCH 55 (1931) 70; A. Laumonier, Les Cultes Indigènes en Carie (1958) 221f; G. E. Bean, Turkey beyond the Maeander (1971) 98-100.


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