From Washington.

The Alexandria Gazette has the following by special express:

Washington, May 8.
--The continued stream of Northern troops that is pouring into the Federal Metropolis occasions no remark or surprise, though the citizens are evidently becoming tired of this thing. The soldiers now in the city are very numerous, and they are well armed; but a practical eye soon discovers among them various faults and some bad discipline.

Although people are not now arrested by the city police for uttering sentiments opposing the policy of the present Administration, they are cautioned by their friends.

Travel between this city and Alexandria is now uninterrupted, and baggage of all descriptions goes through without examination, though guards of Federal and Virginia troops are stationed at the different ends of the Long Bridge.

The steamer Mount Vernon, with a large force of Government troops, left this city yesterday, for the lower Potomac. She was cruising off Boyd's Hole last night, with the large Columbiad she had on board pointing towards the Virginia shore.

The rumors which are prevalent in Alexandria, concerning an invasion and possession of that city by the Lincoln Administration, are not credited by any one in this city. In fact, it is doubtful whether enough of the troops now here could be induced to go to Virginia.

The Northern papers contain voluminous dispatches from Washington, some of which we copy:

Washington, May 7.
--There has been a long and tedious meeting of the Cabinet to-day.--The President and each Cabinet Minister came out of it looking very much jaded. Among the subjects discussed was the present attitude of some of the great Powers of Europe relative to the contemplated oligarchy of the South.

The Secretary of War has granted a furlough to Major Anderson, who will soon visit Kentucky, his native State, where many of his relatives still reside. The Secretary has the subject of the promotion of Major Anderson under consideration, and has not yet determined what rank above his present to assign him, but probably it will be nothing less than Brigadier General.

Secretary Cameron speaks in terms of the highest praise of the rapid movement made by General Butler, in advancing upon and holding his present position at the Relay House.--General Scott is not less enthusiastic in his compliments to General Butler and his officers and men.

The greatest activity is going on in the War and Navy Departments, in the work of perfecting the details of encompassing and punishing the traitors who have thrown this country into its present condition.

Another committee has been here from Baltimore, who reported to the President the present state of affairs in that city. The mob spirit is down, and the loyalists are preparing to welcome the Government troops. There will be at least three regiments raised in Baltimore, of one thousand each, and accepted by the Government, not withstanding the attempt of the rebel Legislature of Maryland to deprive Governor Hicks of his proper constitutional power.

Troops will be concentrated in Washington to the number of forty thousand.

Senator Morrill, at the request of Governor Washburne, of Maine, tendered to-day to the President one regiment of lumbermen from that State, not a man to measure less than six feet. The regiment will probably not be accepted at present, as to do so would be disrespectful to many other volunteer regiments from different parts of the country which have been refused. The Government desire the requisition for the regulars to be filled before accepting any more volunteers.

Major Anderson was moved to tears by the offer of the command of the Kentucky brigade. He expressed his hearty willingness to accept it, if the consent of the Department can be gained. Leading Union men from Kentucky now here are very anxious to have the necessary permission given, as they all believe it would greatly strengthen the Union feeling in their State.

The Maryland authorities having reluctantly, but meekly notified the Government that Northern troops could pass through their State unmolested, Gen. Patterson will not move his corps d'armee in a body towards Washington, but in detachments of from two to three regiments. They will commence moving from York, Harrisburg, Lancaster and Philadelphia, as soon as the repairs on the Northern Central and Philadelphia and Wilmington Railroad are completed, and march through Baltimore to test the temper of that city. Should the slightest attempt to repeat the murderous treachery of the 19th ult. be made, the guns of Fort McHenry will teach the bloody city a lesson that she will never forget.

General Scott is anxious to see all the volunteers called here come fully armed and uniformed, and ready to enter upon camp life. The Capital is now secure, and men should no more be hurried hither half clothed, and without a knowledge even of the rudiments of drilling. The Commander- in-Chief, in response to the inquiries of several Northern Governors, has signified that no necessity exists at present for sending wagons and horses for transportation purposes with the contingents of the several States. This does not indicate an intention to move the army over Southern soil.

The Firemen Zouaves were mustered into service to-day. All readily took the oath. The corps continue to make the most strenuous efforts in the drill ground. The two members that committed an outrage in a house near the Capitol on Saturday, have been kept in irons since their arrest, by order of Col. Ellsworth. He intends to disgrace them before the regiment, and then to deliver them up to the civil authorities.

Gen. Scott has, for the third time, voluntarily taken the oath of allegiance to the Constitution and laws. The officers of his staff have followed his example. The first occasion was when he entered the service, and the second when in command of Fort Moultrie, in the ‘ "Calhoun nullification"’ times.

Washington, May 8.
--Mr. Simonton, of the New York Times, was seriously but not dangerously wounded this afternoon. Just as he had passed a military outpost on the city suburbs, the captain levelled a gun down the road, which accidentally exploding, the ball penetrated the muscle in his right shoulder, and grazing the bone, came out near the windpipe.

The horses attached to his carriage took fright, the vehicle was overturned, and Mrs. Simonton, who accompanied her husband, was thrown to the ground, and severely bruised on the head and face.

Much excitement was occasioned on Pennsylvania avenue to-night owing to the shooting of a soldier by, it is said, a policeman, who was in pursuit of him. The wound being in the head, it is supposed it will prove fatal.--The indignation against the police is intense among the military.

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