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cted and burned, but no suspicion seems to have entered the minds of the observers that there was anything valuable involved. The artificial production of gas from coal dates in the seventeenth century, and the early examples of its manufacture and use are as follows: — Dr. Clayton, rector of Crofton, England, distilled illuminating gas from coal, and detailed the experiment to his friend Dr. Boyle, in 1688. Dr. Boyle announced it to the Royal Society before his death, which happened in 1691. Dr. Clayton obtained what he called an uncondensable spirit, which, as it issued in a jet, was caught in a bladder and used for experiments; the gas being repeatedly lighted and blown out. About fifty years afterwards the account was published in the Philosophical Transactions, and appears to have drawn attention to the subject, as from this point we find a chain of experimenters and then a line of practical developers. If the series is to be briefly stated, we shall give it thus; Dr.
es for the upper. It was used in France as early as A. D. 1515. The illustration q, Plate XL. page 1692, is from Bonanni's Gabinetto Armonico, 4to, Rome, 1722. The spinet was always triangular, and occupied a place in point of time between the virginal and the harpsichord. Unlike the former, its strings were strained over a bent bridge, and were struck by quills; and, unlike the latter, it had but a single string to a note. See history of the development of the piano-forte, pages 1690, 1691. Lord Bacon says: In spinets, as soon as the spine is let fall to touch the string, the sound ceases. The name was also applied to a supplementary instrument tuned an octave above the harpsichord, and placed on or inside that instrument, in some cases sliding therein like a drawer. Spin′ner. A general term for a spinning-machine. See spinning. Spinner. Specifically applied to a form of drawing and twisting device, as in Fig. 5401. The twisting devices are placed in proximit
rterial blood from a lamb into the veins of a child. Subsequently calf's blood was infused into the veins of a maniac, who, shortly after, regained his reason. These successes led to numerous other attempts of the kind, but the general results were such that the practice was forbidden by the Parliament of Paris in 1668. The injections were, in these cases, performed by means of a common syringe. The operation was performed in England at the same period, and was practiced by Lower, 1691. A man that the college [Gresham] have hired for 20s to have some of the blood of a sheep let into his body, and it is to be done on Saturday next. They purpose to let in about 12 ounces, which they compute will be let in in a minute's time by a watch. — Pepys's Diary, 21 Nov., 1667. The experiment was performed at Arundel House two days afterward, upon the person of Arthur Coga. ( Phil. Trans., No. 30, page 557.) Pepys states that, on the 14th November, 1666, the blood of one do
forms and combinations having been in use for nearly three centuries at the time the piano-forte was introduced, it is hardly worth while to give credit to any particular person at that late date for the invention of an instrument in which the strings of a prostrate harp were struck by hammers. The improvements on that well known device were, however. great, and the piano may be sail to date from that of B. Christofori of Florence, 1711. See A, Fig. 3686, and accompanying description, page 1691. Vis-à--Vis. A dress-carriage for town use. Vise. 1. An instrument with two jaws, between which an object may be clamped securely, leaving both hands free for work. The hand-vise is not a vise proper, but has a tang which is grasped by one hand, while the other holds the tool to work upon the object held. A better definition could hardly be given than that of the Autocrat of the Breakfast-table, when vicepresident at a feast where the presiding officer was too voluble and gav
ay. They are sometimes three years in boring these wells to the depth necessary to reach the springs they are intended to attain. See artesian well. In Europe, the province of Artois has been noted for its bored wells since early in the twelfth century, and one is shown at Lillers which is believed to have been bored in 1126. See artesian well. The arms of Modena, several hundreds of years back, were a pair of well-boring augers; and a professor of medicine of that city wrote, in 1691, a treatise on physics, which explained the mode of boring for water. The first notice of boring in England was not for the purposes of a well, but to ascertain the solidity of the foundation of St. Paul's, a number of crypts and structures having successively stood upon the same spot, and it was difficult to determine how much of the slight eminence was debris and how much reliable for supporting the ponderous building Sir Christopher Wren designed to erect. Toward the end of the last