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een performed. The modern anaesthetic agents are: cold applications, protoxide of nitrogen (laughing-gas), chloroform, ether, amylene, kerosolene. Sir Humphry Davy suggested the use of protoxide of nitrogen as an anaesthetic agent in surgical operations. It was used by Dr. Wells of Hartford, Conn., in 1844, in dental operations. It has now attained great favor. Chloroform is a terchloride of formyle (the hypothetical radical of formic acid). Its discovery is claimed by Soubeiran, Guthrie, and Liebig, whose claims have about an even date, 1831. The verdict seems to have settled in favor of the former. Its first use as an anaesthetic was by Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh, 1847. Hydrate of chloral has recently become quite unpleasantly prominent in the list of anodynes, sedatives, and hypnotics. Ether was known to the earliest chemists. The discovery of its use as an anaesthetic was made by Dr. Jackson or Dr. Morton of Boston, in 1846. A contest ensued between the parties
hing made of gold, which they call in chymistry Aurum Fulminans, a grain, I think he said, of it, put into a silver spoon and fired, will give a blow like a musquett, and strike a hole through the silver spoon. — Pepys, 1663. A fulminating powder which explodes when heated to 360° may be made of niter, 3 parts; dry carbonate of potash, 2 parts; sulphur, 1 part. The following patents may be consulted by those desirous of ascertaining the ingredients of various patented fulminates: — Guthrie1834.Boldt1866. Kling1857.Rand1867. Ruschaupt et al.1862.Goldmark1867. Lipps1864.Ruschaupt1868. Stockwell1865. Fumi-ga′tor. An apparatus for applying smoke, gas, or perfume: — 1. To destroy insects or vermin in their holes, or upon clothing, trees, or plants. 2. To destroy infection or miasma in buildings, ships, clothing, or feathers. 3. To diffuse a fragrant or invigorating perfume through an apartment or ward. 4. To suffuse the lungs with a soothing or healing vap
ly applying medicated vapors or anaesthetic agents. 4. An apparatus to enable a fireman, miner, or diver to work in a poisonous or heated atmosphere, or in water, carrying with him a supply of vital air. See diving. Inhalers. Dr. Priestley's letter, speaking of Gaseous oxyd of Septon (dephlogisticated nitrous air), was addressed to one of the editors of the New York Medical repository, and was republished in the London Monthly magazine, June 1, 1800. Chloroform was discovered by Guthrie, Souberain, or Liebig, about 1831, but its valuable properties as an anaesthetic were not appreciated until 1847. Dr. Morton of Boston, and Professor Simpson of Edinborough, discovered its applicability to this purpose almost simultaneously in 1847. See ANAeSTHETIC apparatus. Morton's inhalation apparatus, November 13, 1847, has a chamber to hold the sponge, and two lateral openings through which respectively enter the atmospheric air and pass out the air impregnated with the vapor of