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CRAMOND Edinburgh, Scotland.

Roman fort and stores base for the Antonine Wall on the Firth of Forth, 8 km NW of the center of Edinburgh. The existence of an important site, long suspected because of numerous coin finds ranging in date from the Republic to the early 3d c. A.D., was proved by excavations in 1955-62. Three major occupations were identified, two in the Antonine period between A.D. 142 and 185, and one in the early 3d c., during all of which the overall dimensions of the site remained constant (ca. 162 x 141 m; 2.36 ha).

The defenses consisted of a thick clay rampart revetted externally by a stone wall. The fort is larger than would normally be required to house the garrisons known to have been stationed at Cramond, and although only a limited area of the interior has been explored there is evidence that the additional space was occupied by storage buildings and workshops. Altars testify to the presence of the 1000-strong Cohors I Tungrorum and the 500-strong Cohors V Gallorum, but precisely when is unknown. A bath was found outside the fort on the W, and a large extramural settlement on the S and E. Evidence of a limited (4th c.) occupation was recovered from both fort and settlement. Some of the finds are in the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, and others in the Huntly House Museum, Edinburgh.


Inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Midlothian and West Lothian (1929) 38-41; Britannia 5 (1974).


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