(Orgon) Bouches-du-Rhône, France.
A Gallo-Greek oppidum of the Salyens, on the hill of
Beauregard at the extreme NE of the Alpilles chain.
A strategic site dominating the Durance Valley, where
there are many foundations of Gallic huts carved out
of the rock. Coins have often been found on the surface,
almost all minted in Massalia (Marseille); noteworthy
are two silver obols with sunken reverse dating from
the 6th c. B.C. The obverse of one coin shows a Corinthian helmet with visor and sidepieces; the reverse, a bearded, helmeted head. There are also obols with the head of Apollo on the reverse side with M A, and little bronze
coins with a bull (3d-1st c. B.C.).
Excavations in the gully of the cemetery in 1887 and
1958 have yielded seven Gallic terracotta andirons with
a ram's head, fragments of bricks impressed with decorations of persons, animals, and geometric designs (museums of Aviguon and St-Rémy-de-Provence), and many
pottery sherds. Other discoveries include an altar to
Jupiter Taranis with an inscription in Greek letters, and
Roman altars dedicated to Apollo and Sylvanus. In
1967 a terracotta Jewish oil lamp from the 1st c. B.C.
was found in the Vau quarter (type 3 of Dressel's classification) decorated on the top with a double candlestick with seven branches. This is the oldest menorah found in Gaul (Musée Judéo-Comtadin, Cavaillon).
A. Sagnier, “Une inscription gauloise
trouvée à Orgon,” Mémoires de l'Académie de Vaucluse
(1887); id., Forma Orbis romani
V (1936) No. 492; F. Benoit, L'art primitif
méditerranéen de la vallée du Rhône (1955)MI
; L. Poumeyrol, “Le site de Beauregard à Orgon,” Cahiers ligures de Préhistoire et d'Archéologie
; B. Blumenkranz, “Les premières implantations de Juifs en France,” CRAI