(the latter form,
as a neuter noun of the third declension, is common in the oblique cases and
in the plural), a Roman measure of surface, 240 feet in length and 120 in
breadth, containing therefore 28,800 square feet (Varr. R. R.
1.10; L. L.
5.35 M. ; Colum. R. R.
Plin. Nat. 18.9
, cf. § 178;
Quint. Inst. 1.10.42
15.15). It was the double of the Actus Quadratus,
and from this circumstance, according to
Varro and Columella, it derived its name (as if from junctus
). The word is really, however, a by-form of jugum;
and Pliny's etymology is far preferable:
“quod uno jugo boum in die exarari posset.” The jugerum was
not, like the ACTUS
a measure of
length as well as of surface; the contrary notion rests only on a single
passage of Pliny, who describes the vale of Tempe as ferme sesquijugeri latitudine
is here, no doubt, translating from a Greek source, and uses jugerum
loosely as the equivalent of πλέθρον
n.). The uncial division [As] was applied to the jugerum, its smallest part
being the scrupulum of 10 feet square = 100 square feet. Thus the jugerum
contained 288 scrupula
(Varr. R. R.
l.c.). The jugerum was the common measure of land among the Romans. Two
jugera formed a heredium,
a hundred heredia
Two jugera were the traditional amount of land given to
each citizen in old times as heritable property (Varr. l.c.;
Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome,
2.156 if., and
Appendix i.). The jugerum was a little over 2 roods 19 perches, or almost
5/8 of an English acre; see the Tables. (Cf. Hultsch, Metrol.
p. 69; Mommsen, R. H.
1.195=1.162, tr. Dickson; Rudorff,