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JURI´DICI With a view of making the administration of justice more directly dependent on the emperor, Hadrian appointed over Italy four magistrates of consular rank (consulares) who had both criminal and civil jurisdiction (Spart. Hadr. 22; Capitolin. Ant. Pi. 2, M. Ant. Phil. 11; Appian, App. BC 1.38). This institution of Hadrian did not long survive him, but M. Aurelius imitated it by appointing a number of imperial officials of praetorian rank with the title of juridici, who were to perform certain administrative functions outside Rome--the urbica dioecesis. (M. Ant. Phil. l.c. “datis juridicis Italiae consuluit ad id exemplum, quo Hadrianus consulares viros reddere jura praeceperat;” C. I. L. 5.1874.) These juridici had jurisdiction in respect of fideicommissa (Dig. 40, 5, 41.5), and in disputes concerning the office of curialis [CURIALIS; they also nominated guardians (Vat. fr. 205, 232, 241); and they may have been competent to decide some other civil causes; but they do not appear to have had any criminal jurisdiction. They probably exercised other besides judicial functions connected with the administration of justice. The jurisdiction of juridici was not taken from that of the municipal magistrates, but from that of the Roman courts, which continued, however, to decide matters of importance. Each juridicus had a particular district specially assigned to him ( “regiones quae sunt sub juridicis” : cf. Marquardt, Staatsverw. 1.74, &c.). The office of juridicus lasted till about the middle of the third century.

An imperial official who exercised the higher jurisdiction in Egypt was called juridicus, whence the title of the Italian juridici is derived [p. 1.1037](Walter, Rechtsgesch. 36, n. 24; Orelli-Henzen, 6488).

(The information contained in this article is principally taken from Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii.2 1038 ff.; cf. Bethmann-Hollweg, Der römische Civilprocess, § 66; Becker-Marquardt, Röm. Alterth. 3.1.56, &c.)


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