), a resident
foreigner, a permanent settler in an alien state. Resident aliens were
common in nearly all Greek cities, especially centres of commerce, the sole
known exceptions being Sparta, whose ξενηλασίαι
were notorious (Thuc.
; Xen. Resp. Lac. 14.4
and possibly Apollonia (Ael. Var. Hist.
13.16). A list of
thirty-one towns which are known to have harboured μέτοικοι
is given by Schenkl (Wiener Studien,
1880, ii. p. 163 f.), the authorities being chiefly inscriptional. The name
appears with the variants πάροικοι,
(Argos, C. I. G.
14, 19), and ἔνοικοι.
1. Institution of the class.
--Mention of resident foreigners
at Athens is made by Plutarch, Plut. Sol. 24
(γενέσθαι πολίταις οὐ δίδωσι [Σόλων] πλὴν
τοῖς...πανεστίοις Ἀθήναζε μετοικιζομένοις ἐπὶ
). Yet this can hardly be taken to imply that all craftsmen
who migrated to Athens in Solon's time received citizen rights, nor do we
find in the fragments of Solon's laws any mention of a class intermediate
between the πολι-ται
between whom a sharp line appears to have
been drawn. It seems more probable that Cleisthenes first created the
A very possible interpretation of the
well-known passage Arist. Pol.
iii. p. 1275
(πολλοὺς γὰρ ἐφυλέτευσε [Κλεισθένης] ξένους
καὶ δούλους μετοίκους
) is to take μετοίκους
in a non-technical sense, either with both
substantives or with the latter only (see however DEMUS
Vol. I. p. 616 b
). Now the most ancient inscription in which the word occurs as
the designation of an ordo
is in C. I.
1.2, the date of which is not much after Cleisthenes. A large
admission to citizenship, such as Cleisthenes had carried, would necessitate
the definite regulation of what constituted non-citizenship, in the case of
those who did not now become enfranchised, and of new arrivals at Athens.
Hence the “order”
intermediate between the fully
mentioning 13,000 as the full hoplite citizen force, gives 16,000 as the
number of those who manned the battlements, consisting of πρεσβύτατοι καὶ νεώτατοι καὶ μέτοικοι.
2.31 he distinctly tells us that the full metoec hoplite force amounted to
3,000. Thus the whole number of πολῖται
liable to military service between the ages of 18 [p. 2.169]
and 60 (taking the πρεσβύτατοι
as from 50
to 60, and the νεώτατοι
as from 18 to 20)
was, at that time, 13,000+(16,000-3000), i. e. 26,000. This would give,
taking 1: 4 1/2 as the proportion of grown males to the rest of the citizen
body, nearly 120,000. It would be rash to infer from this the number of the
as a whole, for we do not know
that the hoplite status was the same for μέτοικοι
as for πολῖται
: and as
they, as a rule, only manned the walls, they must have been less exposed to
loss. The number of μέτοικοι
is obscured by
the fact that special draftings of μέτοικοι
into the ranks ofπολῖται
are known to have
taken place, when the numbers of πολῖται
had been thinned by a serious disaster. Such cases are related by Diodorus
Siculus, 13.97 (later years of Peloponnesian war), and the
pseudo-Plutarchian author of the life of Hyperides, p. 9 (after Chaeronea,
B.C. 338, at which 1000 πολῖται
There is distinct testimony that in the time of Demetrius of Phalerum there
were 21,000 πολῖται,
and 400,000 δοῦλοι
in Attica (Athen. Deipn.
Some regard these numbers in the case ofπολῖται
referring only to able-bodied men. The μέτοικοι
consisted of Lydians, Phrygians, Syrians, and other
barbarians (Xen. Vect. 2.3
Syracusans, e. g. Lysias the speech-writer, Corinthians, e. g. Deinarchus,
--Any stranger not a slave who
remained more than a certain time at Athens was compelled to register
himself as μέτοικος.
During the days of
grace he was termed παρεπίδημος
(μέτοικός ἐστιν, ὁπόταν τις ἀπὸ ξένης ἐλθὼν
ἐνοικῇ τῇ πόλει, τέλος τελῶν εἰς ἀποτεταγμένας τινὰς χρείας
τῆς πόλεως : ἕως μ̀ν οὖν ποσῶν ἡμερῶν παρεπίδημος καλεῖται
καὶ ἀτελής ἐστιν, ἐὰν δὲ ὑπερβῇ τὸν ὡρισμένον χρόνον,
μέτοικος ἤδη γένεται καὶ ὑποτελής.
in Herodian. Epimer.
ed. Boisson. p. 287). The civic
disabilities of μέτοικοι
proverbial. Xenophon speaks of the Corinthians after their fusion with Argos
as ἐν τῇ πόλει μετοίκεν ἔλαττον
4.4, 6). Demosthenes
p. 1243.29) expresses the same idea by the
phrase μέτοικος καὶ οὐδὲν δυνάμενος.
iii. p. 1275 a) defines the
τῶν τιμῶν μὴ μετέχων.
i. e. the right of serving as magistrate
and dicast, and of voting in elections. (b
marriage with πολῖται.
) γῆς καὶ οἰκίας ἔγκτησις,
land or house property. (d
right of performing public sacrifice.
was obliged to enrol himself
) under a
). This custom was no
doubt originally due to the fact that in the eye of Greek law and religion
the stranger was of the same status as a woman or a minor. Thus the προστάτης
was at once a security for the good
behaviour of the μέτοικος,
representative to the δῆμος.
(See Aristoph. Peace 683
; Harpocrat. s. v.
Suidas, s. v. νέμειν προστάτην.
) A μέτοικος
who failed to register himself under a προστάτης
incurred ἀπροστασίου δίκη
: one who deserted his προστάτης
incurred ἀποστασίου δίκη
p. 435; Dem.
p. 940.61, 48). The character of the μέτοικος
might be inferred from that of his
§ 53). Yet it seems that a μέτοικος
could plead a case in person. The
speech of Demosthenes against Eubulides is spoken by a man presumed to be a
and no mention is made of a
in Lysias v. and xxiii., both
of which speeches are made on behalf of μέτοικοι.
His civic disabilities left the μέτοικος
free to engage in pursuits for which the ordinary citizen had little
leisure. He was devoted to trade and could undertake long journeys on
business. Hence μέτοικοι
valuable to the state and were encouraged to settle there. (See Aristoph. Lys. 579
; Isocr. de Pace,
§ 21; [Lys.] Andoc.
§ 49; Xen. Vect. 4.4.
; Grote, Greece,
Part II. ch. xi. p. 336, large ed.)
Their close connexion with the πολῖται
compared by Aristophanes to the relation of bran to flour, while ξένοι
are but the chaff, which is winnowed away
508). Their wealth often made them an object of
envy and oppression, especially in matters of taxation (Dem.
p. 609.66; Timocr.
166). A special
instance of this is seen in their treatment under the Thirty (Xen. Hell. 2.3
paid an annual tax (μετοίκιον
) of twelve drachmae, widows paying six
drachmae, mothers whose sins paid already being exempt (Harpocr. s. v.
). This tax, like all others
at Athens, was farmed out ([Dem.] Aristog.
i. p. 787.68;
Harpocr. s. v. πωληταί
--Of the public λειτουργίαι
is certainly known to have been open to μέτοικοι.
(See Dem. Lept.
pp. 462.18, 476.70;
Lys. 12.20; C. I. A.
were liable to εἰσφοραί,
which they paid on a rating of one-sixth of their
property, a rating high in comparison to the πολῖται
p. 612.75). For this
purpose they were formed into μετοκικαὶ
(Hyperid. ap. Poll. 8.144; see also Boeckh,
ed. 3, vol. i. p. 624 ff.). With regard to
military service, Pericles (Thuc. 2.13
to speak of the μέτοικοι
as only manning
the walls. Yet they seem to have taken part in some distant expeditions,
both as hoplites and oarsmen, e. g. to Megara (Thuc.
), coasts of Peloponnesus (id. 3.16), Boeotia (id. 4.90). See
also Thuc. 1.143
, Dem. Phil.
36, from which it would seem that the employment of the μέτοικοι
was usually regarded as a last
resource. They were not allowed to serve as ἱππεῖς
in any case (Xen.
; Hipparch. 9.6).
The difference between μέτοικοι
is naturally most marked in religious
matters. Yet, as being an integral part of the state, they had a claim to
some share in the state's religion. They took part in the Panathenaea,
ἵνα ὡς εὐ_νοι ἀριθμῶνται μετέχοντες τῶν
the men (σκαφηφόροι
carrying skiff-shaped bowls, the matrons (ὑδριαφόροι
) pitchers, the maidens (σκιαδηφόροι
) parasols (Hesych. sub
: Ael. Var. Hist.
Poll. 3.55; Harpocr. s. v. μετοίκιον;
pp. 214, 242). Others, however, think that the
males alone took part in this σκαφηφορία,
and that the σκιαδηφορία, ὑδριαφορία,
were quite distinct
5. Special privileges.
as a reward for distinguished state services,
might receive by vote of the ἐκκλησία
special privileges, [p. 2.170]
such as προξενία
p. 475.68; C. I.
2.27, 42, 91; Dem. Il. citt.
), ἔγκτησις γῆς καὶ οἰκίας
2.41, 70, 186, 380) πρόσοδος πρὸς τὴν
βουλὴν καὶ τὸν δῆμον
(C. I. A.
2.41, 91). A
special class of μέτοικοι
These had no προστάτης,
paid no μετοίκιον,
enjoyed (this is disputed) ἔγκτησις γῆς καὶ οἰκίας,
and were, as far as payment of
taxes and service as hoplites were concerned, on an equality with πολῖται.
They were excluded from office,
(Poll. 3.56; Harpocr. s. v. ἰσοτελεῖς
: C. I. A.
Actions at law in which μέτοικοι
concerned, either as plaintiff or defendant, were heard before the ἄρχων πολέμαρχος δίκαι δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν λαγχάνονται
μετοίκων ἰσοτελῶν προξένων
(Poll. 8.91). While liable
in all cases to which
were subject, they were only
able λαμβάνελν δίκην
in actions arising
out of matters in which μέτοικοι
specially concerned. Thus a μέτοικος
indict a πολίτης
for non-fulfilment of
contract, but not for ἀσέβεια.
Aristotle in Harpocr. s. v. πολέμαρχος
48; Isocr. Trapez.
the banker institutes a δίκη βλάβης
the polemarch against a nameless μέτοικος
Lys. 23.2, 3. [A.H.C
. Ath. Pol. 58
confirms the statements (p. 170 a
) as to their
actions at law before the polemarch.