) means in its first
sense a band of any kind, and accordingly it was (1) the Homeric μίτρη,
a band beneath the θώρηξ
over the lower part of the abdomen [LORICA
p. 78 a
], and (2) is equivalent to the ζώνη
the maiden's girdle [CINGULUM
Vol. I. p. 427), so that the word ἄμιτρος
a young girl, not old enough for a girdle, not yet of a marriageable age.
The word is then used for a band fastening the hair; thence developing into a
regular head-dress for women, with lappets hanging over the ears, apparently
something like a κρήδεμνον
or the CALAUTICA
(Serv. ad Aen. 9.616
Paris, with Phrygian mitre. (Aegina Marbles.)
Vol. I. p. 449, and the
woodcuts on that page): but it does not seem to have been worn either in
Greece or at Rome by women of a respectable class. (See Serv. l.c.
and the passages cited by Professor Mayor on
.) Cicero speaks indignantly of the
being worn by effeminate young men
(pro Rabir. Post.
As an Asiatic head-dress it was sometimes shaped like a turban, as in the
mosaic of the battle of Issus, sometimes in a peaked form, as in the woodcut
from the Aeginetan sculptures representing Paris; also with lappets (the
of Verg. l.c.
), as is well shown in a vase-painting ap. Baumeister,
fig. 1318: from this Asiatic head-dress the
episcopal mitre was a very late development. In the LXX. in Ex. 28.33 and
some other passages the word μίτρα
the priestly cap which is commonly called κίδαρις.
It is noticeable that the ecclesiastical mitre of the
Middle Ages is by some ecclesiastical writers called a Phrygium.
(Marriott, Vestiarium Christ.