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CORDYE´NE, GORDYE´NE (Γορδυηνή, Ι ορδηνή, Γορδυαῖα: Eth.Γορδυαῖοι, Eth.Κορδυαῖοι, Eth. Ορδύεοι, Γορδυηνοί, Cordueni), a district lying to the E. of the river Tigris, and occupied by the wandering tribes of the CARDUCHI (Strab. xvi. p.747.) The name Cordyeni, like Kurdistân, which more or less in modern times may be said to represent it, is simply a geographical expression, signifying a mere aggregate of people without political union or intercourse.

The Romans became acquainted with it first. during the campaign of Lucullus, when, after the fall of Tigranocerta, he took up his winter-quarters in this district, and received the submission of several of the petty chieftains who had been formerly subject to the yoke of Tigranes, king of Armenia. (Plut. Luc. 29.) Under Pompey it was annexed to the Roman province (D. C. 37.5). Corduene was one of the five provinces which Galerius wrested from the Persian king Narses; it was afterwards given up to Chosroes in the disastrous negotiation which followed on the retreat of Jovian (Amm. Marc. 25.7; Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. iii. p. 161). The geography of this wild mountainous district has been as yet but little investigated, and further discoveries have still to be made. But a correct idea of it may be formed by considering it a region of lofty terrasses, separated by valleys, forming a series of parallel ranges of mountain elevations, the general direction of which is nearly NNW. and SSE. (Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. xi. p. 141; St. Martin, Mém. sur l'Armenie, vol. i. p. 176; Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. xi. p. 21, foll.)


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