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TA´XILA (Τάξιλα, Arrian, Anab. 5.8; Ταξίαλα, Ptol. 7.1.45), a place of great importance in the Upper Panjáb, between the Indus and Hydaspes, which was visited by Alexander the Great. It is said to have been ruled at that time by a chief named Taxiles, who behaved in a friendly manner to the Grecian king. The country around was said to be very fertile, and more abundant than even Egypt (Strab. xv. pp. 698--714). There can be little doubt that it is represented by the vast ruins of Manikyala, which has in modern times been the scene of some very remarkable researches (Elphinstone, Cabul, p. 79; Burnes, Travels, i. p. 65, ii. p. 470.) The famous Topes of Manikcyala, which were examined by General Ventura and others (Asiatic Res. xvii. p. 563), lie to the eastward of Rawil-pindi. Wilson considers Taxila to be the same as the Takhsasila of the Hindus (Ariana, p. 196).


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