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CRUCINIACUM (Bad Kreuznach) Rhineland Palatinate, Germany.

A Roman vicus on the Nahe, a tributary of the Rhine, 13 km S of Bingen. The oldest remains date from a settlement of the Late Stone Age, and there are finds from the Bronze and Iron Ages. The vicus was probably on the site of a Celtic settlement. There was a wooden bridge over the Nahe at the junction of the ancient routes from Bingerbriick, Trier, Mainz, and Alzey. A Frankish palace is first mentioned in the 9th c.

The Roman vicus, obviously a crossroads settlement during the Age of Augustus, lay to the E of the present town. Lead curse tablets found in tombs (today in the museums of Bonn and Worms) record more than 70 inhabitants of the settlement during the last quarter of the 1st c. A.D. The settlement was destroyed ca. 270, rebuilt during the Constantinian epoch, and finally razed in the middle of the 4th c. About 370 a fortification was built by Valentinian I. Only part of the E front (2 m thick) remains, the so-called Heidenmauer. The continual use of the necropolis to the SE of the fortification from the Late Iron Age to the era of the Franks, is attested by ca. 1800 Roman graves with burial urns, 70 Late Roman inhumation graves, 450 tombs without contents, and 270 Franconian tombs with grave goods. A second Franconian necropolis is on the bank of the Nahe; a third is near a Roman villa on the road to Hiiffelsheim. In the villa, not yet fully excavated, was a gladiator mosaic, now in Bad Kreuznach Museum. Another mosaic, uncovered in 1966, shows a seascape with the bust of Oceanus.


O. Kohl, Programm des königlichen Gymnasiums zu Kreuznach: Die römischen Inschriften und Steinskulpturen der Stadt Kreuznach (1880); W. Zimmermana, Die Kunstdenkmäler des Kreises Kreuznach (1935) 56-107; K. Parlasca, Die römischen Mosaiken in Deutschland (1959) 88-89; O. Guthmann, Kreuznach und Umgebung in römischer Zeit (1969); B. Stümpel, Mainzer Zeitschrift 63-64 (1968-69) 196-98; Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmälern 12 (1969)MI.


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