the sea side.
The upper portion is revetted with masonry laid in Roman cement on both faces and crown.
The hight of the latter is 2 feet above high-water spring-tides.
4,105,920 tons of stone were used in the construction.
Delaware Breakwater is situated just inside of Cape Henlopen, the southwestern point of land at the entrance of Delaware Bay, and was intended to form a harbor of refuge during storms for vessels passing along the coast.
The work was commenced in 1829.
It consists of two parts, the breakwater proper and the ice-breaker.
The former is 1,203 yards long, extending in an E. S.E., and W. N.W. direction.
The ice-breaker is designed to protect the harbor from floating ice brought down by the Delaware River, is 500 yards long, and lies in an E. by N. and W. by S. direction, having a passage of 350 yards between it and the breakwater, the prolongation of which would pass near the center of the ice-breaker.
The work protects from the more danger
ernaum and Bethsaida would thus experience a part of the fate of Sodom, submergence in salt water, while the Dead Sea would be somewhat freshened.
Aqueducts with cast-iron beds, supported by arches and piers, were introduced by Telford, 1793– 1829, in the construction of several canals; the Shrewsbury, and the Ellesmere and Chester, for instance.
The aqueduct over the Ceirog is 710 feet in length, and the water surface 70 feet above the level of the river; ten arches have each 40 feet span. An early (for Europe) form of the suspensionbridge in which catenary chains supported the floor.
The first was erected over the Tees, in England, in 1741.
Rods with eyes and connecting-links were used by Telford on the Menai Suspension Bridge, 1829; steel wires laid up (not twisted) into cables are now used.
See suspension-bridge; Frontispiece.
The tying together of parts of a stone-wall by a chain or iron bar built in.
（Nautical.) A chain adapted to
s 1824 – 39, resulting in the use of the camera for the exposure of a silver or silvered plate, sensitized by exposure to fumes of iodine in a dark chamber.
The latent image was developed by fumes of mercury and fixed by hyposulphite of soda.
In 1829, Daguerre was joined in his experiments by Niepce, who had been experimenting for fifteen years with an allied process in which a plate coated with asphaltum was exposed in a camera, the image developed by dissolving away the unalloyed portions by engine, average duty28,000,000
In 1826, the improved Cornish engine, average duty30,000,000
Pounds, 1 foot high.
In 1827, the improved Cornish engine, average duty32,000,000
In 1828, the improved Cornish engine, average duty37,000,000
In 1829, the improved Cornish engine, average duty41,000,000
In 1830, the improved Cornish engine, average duty43,350,000
In 1839, the improved Cornish engine, average duty54,000,000
In 1850, the improved Cornish engine, average duty60,000,000
the farthest removed from the mouth of the furnace.
The scum, as it rises, is swept towards the rear from kettle to kettle, and the juice, as the kettles empty by evaporation, is dipped from one to the other towards the batterie. From the latter it is dipped into a box whose conducting troughs lead it to the coolers.
Hoard's pan, patent 1838 (A, Fig. 1887), has a trough around to collect scum, and tubular flues passing through the boiler.
The steam-pan, first introduced in Louisiana in 1829, had a serpentine coil at the bottom of a circular pan.
Stillman's pan (B), 1846, had a series of bends connecting with a tube which also formed an axis for the system which could thus be erected so as to expose the bottom of the pan.
A combination of the open pan and vacuum-pan has been adopted to some extent in Louisiana, and probably elsewhere.
The cane-juice being concentrated in open kettles to about 26° or 28° Baume and then finished in the vacuum-pan.
It requires no special n
flutes the clothes.
In the example, the iron has a segmental corrugated face, and works upon a flat corrugated bed.
An Italian-iron; a gauffering-iron.
One which cuts flutes or scrolls upon columns or balusters.
The flute proper is the vertical groove in a column or pillar, but the flute of the lathe is a spiral.
Several forms of machines are adapted to this purpose.
One is allied in its principle to the rifling-machine, as in January's patent, 1829.
The baluster is fed endways against a lateral tool, being rotated on its axis at such a rate as shall impart the number of turns or part of a turn to the foot in length.
Of this kind is Fig. 2045 (A), in which the piece a to be cut is moved longitudinally through the holder b, and at the same time is rotated so that the tool c in its revolutions may cut the spiral groove shown at a′.
B is a fluting-lathe in which a pair of cutters revolves in a plane oblique with the <
lement denominated the universal glazingtool, for cutting and setting glass.
This has a small thin roller pivoted at its lower extremity, which in its passage over the glass separates the particles in a manner similar to the diamond.
The spatula at the other end is used for puttying, etc.
The diamond is crystallized carbon.
Diamonds were first brought to Europe from the mine of Sumbalpoor.
The Golconda mines were discovered in 1534.
The mines of Brazil in 1728.
Those in the Ural in 1829.
The great Russian diamond weighs 193 carats; cost, £ 104,166 13 s. 4 d. in 1772.
The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats; sold to the king of France for £ 125,000, in 1720.
The Koh-i-noor was found in 1550.
It belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, AurungZebe, Nadir Shah, the Afghans, Runjeet-Singh, and Queen Victoria, 1850.
It originally weighed 800 carats, was cut down to 289 carats by an unskilful Italian, and then to 102 1/4 carats to perfect its shape.
Pliny speaks of adaman
bitumen of Judea on tin and pewter plates.
He commenced in 1814, thus preceding Daguerre, who worked upon silver plates with the vapors of iodine and mercury.
In 1829 they became associated, and thereafter they worked together.
2. An instrument constructed by De la Ruc for obtaining photographs of the sun. ath of Linnaeus, the number of species described was 11,800.
The number of species now recorded is probably nearly 100,000.
See Loudon's Encyclopaedia of plants, 1829.
Amateur collectors may be interested in hearing the statement of a German naturalist, that the catalogue of useful plants has risen to about 12,000, but that oington Railway, opened in 1825.
Stephenson's Rocket was successful over three other competitors in the trial on the rails of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 1829.
It used the multitubular boiler by the suggestion of Mr. Booth of that railway company, also the exhaustblast in the chimney, invented by Trevethick.
Hill's plain ground net machine1816.
Limerick lace made1829.
A bandage support for varicose veins, weak legs, etc.
Paper secured over the keyhole to indicate tampering was patented by Gottleib, 1829.
At the present day, the aid of photography has been called into requisition a feature in the specification of a locomotive, for which a prize was offered in 1829, and won by Stephenson's Rocket.
A device to impede or arrest of the wheels were coupled by an endless chain passing around both axles.
In 1829, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, then the most extensive and finished workf them has been known to run 130 miles in 144 minutes.
A, Stephenson's rocket (1829). B, English locomotive (longitudinal section). C, Gooch's express engine (Englill and widely known, devised an engine which solved the difficulty.
This was in 1829.
The second locomotive built in the United States for actual service was fo
ensive, the price in some instances reaching $15,000. A good instrument, however, amply sufficing for the wants of ordinary amateur observers, may be obtained for $100.
See Carpenter on the microscope ; Hogg's History of the microscope, etc.
The investigations of Leuwenhoeck, Schwammerdam, and the earlier microscopic inquirers, were conducted by means of single lenses, the compound microscope being esteemed comparatively untrustworthy, its true theory being imperfectly understood.
In 1829, Mr. J. J. Lister published the results of his investigations into the laws governing the aberrations of lenses, and gave practical directions for correcting them by combinations of lenses so arranged that the aberrations should balance each; from this period date the great and rapid improvements which have since been made in the compound microscope.
Among recent important improvements in the microscope is the illuminator of Professor Hamilton L. Smith, for opaque objects, in which the lig
d an eye at the middle of its length was patented in England in the year 1755, for hand-sewing or embroidering, the patentee describing it as used by holding it with the fingers at the middle of its length, so that it will not require turning.
In 1829 it was successfully introduced into an embroidering-machine, which is still in extensive use. As many as one hundred and thirty such needles, worked by pincers on opposite sides of the fabric to be embroidered, are used in a single machine.
In 18 purpose of which was to urge the draft.
This was adopted in the locomotive of Trevethick in 1802, by Hedley in his locomotive of 1813, and by several of the competitors at the great trial of locomotives on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1829.
It is a valuable feature in agricultural engines, besides its function as a blast, in dampening the sparks which might set buildings or straw on fire.
The locomotive engineer governs his blast by means of a variable exhaust-nozzle, which he o