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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 42 0 Browse Search
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older.Tombac. Imitation gold.Tula metal. Journal-box metal.Tutenag. Manheim gold.Type-metal. Minargent.White brass. Mock gold.White malleable alloy. Mock platinum.White metals. Mock silver.Wootz. Mosaic gold.Yellow metal. Muntz's metal. Al′ma-dy. (Vessel.) An African canoe made of the bark of trees. Al′man. (Metallurgy.) A furnace used by refiners for separating metals. See almond-furnace. Al′mond-furnace. The word is probably corrupted from Alman (Allemand, German) furnace. Wathew's almond-peeler. A furnace used by refiners for separating all kinds of metals from cinders, etc. Al′--mondpeel′er. A small machine used by confectioners and cooks. Wathew's almond — peeler, October 30, 1866. The thin peel is removed from the scalded almond kernels by passing them between two elastic bands of India-rubber, traversing side by side in the same direction, at different velocities. Almonds came from Persia, and were introduced into E
eof, having a scientific Latin name (gossypium), but an Arabic common name (goton), which pleasantly reminds us of the great people from whom we derived it. Herodotus (Book III. c. 106) refers to the cotton of India: The wild trees of that country bear fleeces as their fruit, surpassing those of the sheep in beauty and excellence; and the Indians use cloth made from this tree-wool. In another place he states that the Indian contingent of the army of Xerxes wore cotton drawers (Book VII., German Baumwolle, tree-wool, c. 65). Theophrastus, the disciple of Aristotle, derived farther information from the expedition of Alexander, and says: — The trees from which the Indians make clothes have a leaf like that of the black mulberry, but the whole plant resembles the dog-rose. They set them in the plains arranged in rows, so as to resemble vines at a distance. They bear no fruit, but the capsule containing the wool is, when closed, about the size of a quince, and when ripe it expan
Gan′is-ter. (Metallurgy.) A refractory material used for lining the Bessemer convertors. It consists of crushed or ground silicious stone mixed with fire-clay. Its object is to save the iron convertor from destruction by the heat of the charge. Ground quartz, sand, and fire-clay. English gang-saw. Atwood's compound for lining the bottoms of Bessemer converters consists of carbon, preferably that obtained from old crucibles, although anthracite or bituminous coal may be used, German, or other plastic clay, old ground fire-brick, Mount Savage stone-clay, and burned, or unburned sand. These materials are ground together, and tamped into the mold. Gap-window. (Architecture.) A long and narrow window. Gar′board-strake. (Shipwrighting.) The range of planks nearest to the keel. In the merchant service, the rabbet to receive the garboard-strake is made along the upper edge of the keel. In the navy, a groove is made half-way down the keel to receive the
m together and prevent slipping. Some kinds of knots are called hitches and bends, which terms usually indicate that they are chiefly employed for making the rope fast to another object, or for securing two objects together. 1, simple overhand knot.25, lark's head. 2, slip-knot, seized.26, simple boat-knot. 3, single bow-knot.27, loop-knot. 4, square or reef knot.28, double Flemish knot. 5, square bow-knot.29, running knot, checked. 6, weaver's knot.30, crossed running-knot. 7, German, or figure-of-8 knot.31, lashing-knot. 32, rosette. 8, two half-hitches, or artificer's knot.33, chain-knot. 34, double chain-knot. 9, double artificer's knot.35, double running-knot with check-knot. 10, simple galley-knot. 11, capstan or prolonge knot.36, double twist-knot. 37, builder's knot. 12, bowline-knot.38, double Flemish knot. 13, rolling-hitch.39, English knot. 14, clove-hitch.40, shortening knot. 15, blackwall-hitch.41, shortening knot. 16, timber-hitch.42, sheep-shank
s give out. The back is the upper part of a lode. The walls or cheeks are the sides of the lode; as the vein inclines, the walls are known as the upper or hanging wall and the under wall. The hade or hading is the slope or inclination. The bearing is the course or direction. The country is the rock traversed by the lode or vein. Side-lodes, strings, feeders, and branches are minor ramifications of a vein or lode. The gangue is the non-metalliferous portion of the vein. (German, Gang, vein.) A heave or fault is a displacement or dislocation of a vein. Gossans are surface indications of a vein. Bunches, nests, concretions, nodules, are detached masses of different characters. 2. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A reach of water in a canal, or slack-water navigation. Lodg′ing-knees. (Shipbuilding.) Compasstimbers lying horizontally and securing the junction of the deck-beams with the frames. Lodg′ment. (Fortification.) An intrenchment hastily
tal alloy for jewelers. Copper.Tin.Bismuth.Platinum.Silver.Nickel.Zinc.Antimony.Lead.Steel.Aluminium. Von Eckart's (same gravity as silver)11.712.43.53 Packfong or tutenag40.431.625.4 White tombac161 Tonca's patent51Cadmium.41 Tutania, German148Cadmium.4 Tutania, Spanish28Cadmium.21 Queen's metal91Cadmium.11 Queen's metal41001Cadmium.8Tungsten. Parisian white metal69.84.719.85.5Tungsten. German white copper888.751Tungsten. Minargent1007051 See also Albata; Britannia-metal; ptuguese vessel with three lateen sails. Mu′ley—head. The sliding carriage to which the muley-saw is attached, and which moves in guides on the frame of the mill. The saw is attached to a muleyhead at each end. Mu′ley—saw. A mill-saw (German, muhlsage, mill-saw) which is not strained in a gate or sash, but has a more rapid reciprocating motion, and has guide-carriages above and below, called muleyheads. Mull. (Fr. molle.) A thin, soft, cotton goods. Varieties are known as Swi
int. k, Simpson's sound. l, uterine probe of silver. Nee′dle-guard. (Sewing-machine.) A sliding piece which moves with the needle and keeps it in line during rapid movement, so that it shall not strike wide of the hole in the cloth-plate. Needle-guard. That in the example is a supporting brace or bar D, which slides vertically. In this instance, as the feed is effected by the needle, the bar has a lateral movement coincident with that of the needle. Nee′dle-gun. (German, Zundnadelgewehr.) A fire-arm which is loaded at the breech with a cartridge carrying its own fulminate, and which is ignited by a needle or pin traversing the breech-block and struck by the hammer. There are many guns of this construction, such as the converted Enfield (see converting); but the one which has attained so great celebrity, though by no means the best of its class, is the Prussian needle-gun, which performed so effective a part in the Prusso-Austrian war of 1866. See fire-
k, long before the Christian era, came to be written from left to right like the Sanscrit and the other languages to which it — not its characters — was allied. The number of letters in the following alphabets is thus given in Ballhorn's Grammatography, Trubner & Co., 1831: — Hebrew22Ethiopic202 Chaldaic22Chinese214 Syriac22Japanese73 Samaritan22Dutch26 Phoenician22Spanish27 Armenian38Irish18 Arabic28Anglo-Saxon25 Persian32Danish28 Turkish33Gothic25 Georgian38French28 Coptic32German26 Greek24Welch4 Latin25Russian35 Sanscrit328 The letter J was introduced into the alphabets by Giles Beye, a printer of Paris, 1660. Short-hand writing was known to the Greeks and Romans. Its invention was ascribed to Xenophon. It was introduced into Rome by Cicero. Pliny employed a short-hand amanuensis. The Chinese dictionary shows 43,496 words: of these 13,000 are irrelevant, and consist of signs which are ill-formed and obsolete. For ordinary use 4,000 signs suffice. Ku<
into a large kettle, and thence poured into a revolving circular trough. Pulverized ore from a hopper descends and covers the melted metal as fast as it runs into the trough, whose continuous rotation causes the formation of alternate thin layers of the crude metal and ore which combine to form malleable iron. Lake Superior, Chaplain, or Iron Mountain ore is employed. Chlorine, hydrogen, and coal gas, the oxides of manganese and zinc, etc., have also been employed. In Eck's furnace (German), coal gas is used. A quantity of coal is introduced into the generator a through an opening in the bottom, and when this has become fully ignited the opening is bricked up and the generator filled with coal from above; a moderate supply of air to support combustion is allowed to enter through the lower tuyeres b. When the refining-hearth c has become thoroughly dried and heated, about 40 cwt. of iron is distributed over the hearth, so as to expose as much surface as possible to the action
s under the influence of heat. Glass made in this way is also known as cylinder, broad, spread, German glass. (See cylinder-glass.) The composition is the same as crown-glass. Flattening the sheet thalers per lot of 40 skins, according to country. Rock-martens reached 6 thalers per skin for German, 7 1/2 thalers for Bosnian and Greek goods; pine-martens, 6 to 7 1/2 thalers per skin. Black cagel-ei′sen. An iron with a natural alloy of from 10 to 12 per cent of manganese. The term is German, spiegel signifying a looking-glass, and has reference to the brilliant white luster of the metarom mutual contact or contact with the same partsA. D. 1705 PotterEnglishValve-gear1716 LeupoldGermanEffective steam pressure on piston in non-condensing engine.1720 AllenEnglishSteamboat (hydrauliishLocomotive ( Puffing Billy )1812 DoddEnglishSteamboat ( Majestic, English waters)1813 KoenigGermanSteam printing-press1814 BellEnglish Comet steamed from Glasgow to London1815 Captain RogersAme
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