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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 18 0 Browse Search
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r, 1590; Greatorix, 1656; and Morland, 1670. The fire-engine of Nuremberg described by Caspar Schott, 1657, was of a different character. It was mounted on a sled 4 × 10 feet, and drawn by two horses. It had a cistern 2 × 8 feet and 4 feet deep, in which were two horizontal cylinders. The brakes were worked by twenty-eight men, and the combined streams from the cylinders issued at a one-inch orifice, and reached a hight of 80 feet. An English patent appears of the date of 1632 to Thomas Grant, and one to John Van der Heyden (or Heide), of Amsterdam, 1663. He is credited with having brought the machine to the present modern form of hand-engine. The brothers Van der Heyden appear to have been the inventors of the leathern hose in detachable sections. In 1699, a patent was granted in France to Duperrier for a pompe portative for extinguishing fires; to this Perrault added the air-chamber. Papin also adopted it. Hooks and fire-ladders must be assumed to have been long in use
d to a shank and shaped like a miniature hoe. Hoe′ing ma-chine′. (Agriculture.) An implement for tending drilled or dibbled crops. It was invented by Jethro Tull, the introducer of the system of drilled crops into England, and was designed to diminish the expense of cultivation by substituting horse labor. Tull's implement was comparatively rude, and it was successively improved by a number of inventors, among whom we notice the names of Blackie, the two Wilkies, Weir, Hayward, Grant, Ganett, Howard, and others in Britain. The history merges into the history of cultivators, in the United States our husbandry being different. Hoes. The great breadth planted to corn and cotton, and the necessity for frequent plowings, havegiven a different form to the tool, as the distance between the rows renders it convenient for the horse, implement, and man to follow the balk, going twice in a row, tending the crop to his right hand each time. This is very different from th<
Lighter and Morrell, 1857. Coal-tar, 1; pine-tar, 50; rosin, 12; caoutchouc, 6; gutta-percha, 6; asphaltum, 12; shellac, 6; linseed-oil, 12; litharge, 6; fire-proof material to be scattered on surface of the above, 12; yellow ocher, 12; beeswax, 3. Oaks, 1859. Coal-tar, 25 gallons; linseed-oil, 2 gallons; caoutchouc, dissolved, 2 gallons; shellac, dissolved, 2 gallons; asphaltum, 5 pounds; steatite, pulverized, 5 pounds; litharge, 5 pounds; sulp. baryta, 5 pounds; gypsum, 5 pounds. Grant, 1862. Coal-tar, 25 gallons; linseed-oil, 3 gallons; caoutchouc, dissolved, 3 gallons; shellac, dissolved, 1.5 gallons; asphaltum, dissolved, 2.5 gallons; Japan varnish, 2 gallons; white-lead, 25 pounds; mineral paint, 60 pounds; yellow ocher, 6 pounds; acetate lead, 5 pounds. Wauzer, 1862. Pitch, 1; quicklime, 2; Ven. red ocher, 2; linseed-oil, 0.5. Fuller, 1863. Saturated sheets of paper. Wheeler, 1866. Coal-tar, 20 gallons; linseed-oil, 2 gallons; shellac, 10 pounds; rosin, 4
inary beast for riding and for burdens in the interior of Africa, as witness Livingstone, Speke, Grant, Baker, Barth, Chaillu, Reade. The earliest saddles on record are those of Egypt (a) and Pers.115,110.Scow, May 23, 1871. 26,268.Horton, Nov. 9, 1859.138,378.Clark, April 29, 1873. 28,470.Grant, May 29, 1860. b. Finely shredded wood to serve as a substitute for curled hair for upholste Fig. 5918) has the central magazine and mica door. Magazine-stove. (Littlefield, 1853.) Grant's English patent, 1850 (Fig. 5919), has the magazine projecting into the fireplace. Base-burwnward into the fire-pot. Magazine-stoves. (Cantelo, 1846.) (Walker, 1849.) Base-burner. (Grant, 1850.) Roney, in 1861 (Fig. 5922), had a grated fire-pot of larger diameter than his magazints be afterward removed by grappling, if necessary. Fig 6021 shows a longitudinal section of Grant heading at Hellgate. The openings of other tunnels are seen to the left. Fig. 6023 is a sect
torpedo under the overhang, and exploding it at the same time the Albemarle's gun was fired. A shot seemed to go crashing through my boat, and a dense mass of water rushed in from the torpedo, filling the launch and completely disabling her. The Albemarle sunk at her moorings. Lieutenant Cushing and one of his crew escaped by swimming. Porter torpedo-boat. Just before the close of the war an attack was made, in the James River, on the merchant-vessels which had brought supplies to Grant's army, by the Confederate fleet of three iron-clad rams and seven gunboats, all armed with torpedoes, fixed on the ends of spars, 30 or 40 feet long, which projected from their bows, and could be raised or lowered by a tackle. This fleet was stopped by a boom, and two of the iron-clads got aground; where they remained all night, under fire from the banks; but although their torpedoes were completely riddled with rifle-shot, not one was exploded by the striking of the fuses. The Porter t