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Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 2., Chapter 6: the Army of the Potomac.--the Trent affair.--capture of Roanoke Island. (search)
lped to form the Republic which they were trying to destroy, and who had perfect equality in public affairs with the whole nation, could be justified in rebelling against it, the Irish people--a conquered nation, and made a part of Great Britain against their will — had the fullest warrant for rebelling against their English conquerors at any and at all times. Among these men we find the names of John Stuart Mill, Professors Goldwin Smith and J. E. Cairnes, Rev. Baptist Noel, Henry Vincent, Layard, the eminent Eastern traveler, the eloquent young O'Donoughue, The O'Donoughue, as he was called, was of one of the most ancient families in Ireland. He was less. than thirty years of age at that time, of great beauty in form and feature, polished in manners, eloquent in speech, of proven courage, and a man of the people in his instincts. In the great Rotunda in Dublin, this man boldly declared to an audience of 5,000 persons, after the reception of the news of the Trent affair, that i
rnaments upon the hem of the high-priest's robe. Small bells, composed of an alloy of 10 copper and 1 tin, were found by Layard at Nimroud. Bells (tintinnabulum) in ancient Greece and Rome were of various forms, hemispherical, pyramidal, sometime, and who laid them up with slime (bitumen), made a very thorough job of it, if the true site has been found. Rawlinson, Layard, Mignau, Rennel, and many others, have found at various places sun-dried and kiln-burned brick of large size and in incalreposterous bridle of the Japanese, as seen in the United States Patent Office collection. The sculptures disentombed by Layard, and the Egyptian paintings and carvings, show patterns for the chase, for war, and for display. Except for a limited tithe king of Assyria. Repenting in exile, he was restored, and died in peace in Jerusalem. A bas-relief, discovered by Layard at Khorsabad, shows that the practice was considered worthy of illustration by permanent record; and it certainly was far
um. The practice is still in vogue there. Cautery, we learn from Denham, is the sovereign Arab remedy for almost every disorder. We read of it in Hippocrates. Layard noticed the use in Mesopotamia; Burton among the Egyptians. The cautery was a favorite surgical instrument with ancient chirurgeons. One of iron, shaped like ound in the excavations of Khorsabad by M. Botta, who was the first successful explorer of the tumuli on the Tigris. Iron armor, inlaid with copper, was found by Layard at Nimroud. Sheet-copper was made in ancient Egypt, Hesiod speaks of the third generation of men who had arms of copper, houses of copper, who plowed with ce secured together by iron cramps fastened by melted lead. So said Diodorus Siculus. Cramps of lead for fastening together the stones of masonry were found by Layard among the ruins of Nineveh. Leaden cramps were similarly used in Egypt. Cramps. The blocks included in one layer of masonry in Smeaton's Eddystone lightho
val with Moses, we find quite an advanced state of the art in the time and country of the latter. Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and when the Israelites went out of Egypt there were a number of skillful workmen able and willing to engrave on precious stones and on metals. The tools, weapons, and ornaments of the ancient Egyptians are in some cases elaborately engraved. Chasing and carving, which are kindred arts, flourished in the kingdom watered by the Nile. Layard and his friends disinterred from the mounds of Nimroud, and at other places, many specimens of the graver's art; copper vessels, beautifully engraved, were among the number. Carving in stone is closely allied to the above, and may be be termed engraving in stone. Egypt is one triumphant vindication of the skill and industry of that nation in this particular. The warlike Osymandyas, nearly 200 years before Abraham, perpetuated upon granite the memory of his exploits, which reached as far
ariegated glass ornaments. Semi-translucent glass imitations of alabaster. Opaque red and blue glasses. Tazzas and images of green, blue, and other colors. Beads of colored glasses in layers. Ornaments of mosaic glass. A glass model of the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Grotersque faces and portraits in glass. Glass imitations of precious stones. Glass rings of various colors. Glass artificial eyes. Glass spoons, shaped and colored in imitation of shells. Layard, in his interesting work on Nineveh, says: I was rewarded by the discovery of two small vases, one in alabaster and the other in glass, both in the most perfect preservation, of elegant shape and admirable workmanship, Each bore the name and title of the Khorsabad king, written in two different ways, as in the inscriptions of Khorsabad. The cuneiform inscription on one small green glass vase was to Sargon, king of Assyria, the founder of Khorsabad, about 709 B. C. He also found a pla
Dr. Abbott's collection in New York has the helmet of Sheshonk or Shishak, with his cartouche upon it. Herodotus states that the Carians were the inventors of three things, the use of which was borrowed from them by the Greeks; they were the first to fasten crests on helmets, to put devices on shields, and handles on shields. Herodotus describes (Book VII.) the following head-dresses of the nations forming the motley army of Xerxes: — The Assyrians had helmets of bronze or iron. Layard found some of the latter metal at Nineveh. The Scythians had tall, stiff caps, rising to a point. They were probably of felt. The Ethiopians wore upon their heads the scalps of horses, with the ears and mane attached; the ears were made to stand upright, and the mane served as a crest. The Paphlagonians had leather helmets. The Thracians wore skins of foxes upon their heads. The Chalybes had brazen helmets, and above these they wore the cars and horns of an ox fashioned in br
, and it is proposed to work over the debris of the former workings. Of the first use of iron in Egypt, Wilkinson says, we have no certain record. His surprise at the execution of the sculptures is very natural, but he does not appear to have estimated the character of the alloys of copper and tin, some of which are very hard. (See alloy; bronze.) Belzoni discovered an iron sickle-blade beneath a granite sphinx at Karnak. Colonel Vyce found an iron blade imbedded in the great pyramid. Layard found a steel cross-cut saw, and other articles of iron, at Nimroud; the saw is now in the British Museum. The butchers of Thebes and Memphis had steels slung from their belts. At Babylon the stones of the bridge across the Euphrates, built by Nitocris, were cramped by bands of iron set in lead. Thucydides says the blocks of the walls of the Pireus were fastened in the same way. Theseus, who ascended the throne of Athens 1235 B. C., was buried with a bronze sword and spear. Some have dat
diamonds, as other stones were cut by the emery previously used. Diamonds were previously set in the rough. They are now cut into brilliants or rose-diamonds. See brilliant; diamond. The plano-convex lens of rock-crystal found at Nimroud by Layard showed the marks of the lapidary's wheel. The seals of this wonderful nation required the lap to reduce them to form. They were of various had materials, such as amethyst, agate, etc., gems and semi-gems. See seal. The wheels of the lapidaower of hollow glass spheres filled with water (Seneca, 1, 6) was, indeed, as familiar to the ancients as the action of burning glasses or crystals (Aristoph. Nub. V. 765 [424 B. C.]) and Nero's emerald (Pliny, XXVII. 5). — Humboldt's Cosmos. Layard found in the ruin called Nimroud a planoconvex lens of rock-crystal 1 1/2 inches in diameter and 9/10 of an inch thick. It shows the marks of the lapidary's wheel. It gives a focus 4 1/2 inches from the plane side. Sir David Brewster says, It
Til′bur-y. An open carriage on two wheels. A form of gig. Tile. 1. A thin slab of baked clay. It was used in great quantity in ancient Mesopotamia among that wonderful people that has passed utterly away, leaving mural remains indicating that it was the most densely populated region of antiquity. In that country the common mode of keeping records of national and historical events was by stamping inscriptions upon tiles of clay, which were baked after the impression was made Mr. Layard, in the course of his excavations at Nineveh, found a large number of these records, some of which were written with such minute characters that a microscope was is required to decipher them. He believed that they were read by a magnifying lens, one of which, made of rock crystal, he found among the ruins of the palace of Nimroud. These tiles are stored away in such order that they were evidently records, but a commoner description of tile furnished the material for many of their struc
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 2, The lost arts (1838). (search)
o Parma, they will show you a gem once worn on the finger of Michael Angelo, of which the engraving is two thousand years old, on which there are the figures of seven women. You must have the aid of a glass in order to distinguish the forms at all. I have a friend who has a ring, perhaps three quarters of an inch in diameter, and on it is the naked figure of the god Hercules. By the aid of glasses, you can distinguish the interlacing muscles, and count every separate hair on the eyebrows. Layard says he would be unable to read the engravings on Nineveh without strong spectacles, they are so extremely small. Rawlinson brought home a stone about twenty inches long and ten wide, containing an entire treatise on mathematics. It would be perfectly illegible without glasses. Now, if we are unable to read it without the aid of glasses, you may suppose the man who engraved it had pretty strong spectacles. So the microscope, instead of dating from our time, finds its brothers in the book
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