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nders covered with wire-gauze. The cane-rolling mill has also been used. 4. The resulting juice is heated to 140°, defecated by hydrate of lime, filtered and evaporated in a vacuum-pan. See condenser; evaporator; vacuum-pan; sugar-machinery; diffusion apparatus. Maceration and desiccation have each been tried with some degree of success. The first notice we find of the making of beet-root sugar was in 1747. Achard's (French) process made the manufacture a success in 1799. Napoleon encouraged it when the English cruisers destroyed the commerce of France, and cut her off from her sugar-producing colonies. It is now being tried in Illinois, Utah, and California. Be-lay′ing-pin. (Nautical.) A stout pin in the side of a vessel or round the masts, used for fastening or belaying ropes. There are several contrivances for belaying, differing especially in size. We may cite: — Belaying-pin.Cleat. Belaying-cleat.Kevel. Belaying-bitt.Riding-bitt. Chess-tree.
use on ship-board have a slot in the knob of the cascabel to receive the breeching, a stout rope secured to ring-bolts in the side of the vessel for the purpose of checking the recoil. Rifled cannon were first employed in actual service in Louis Napoleon's Italian campaign of 1859. General James's, 1861, were the first introduced into the United States service. These were service-pattern smooth-bores, rifled and furnished with projectiles also invented by General James. Captain Parrott's gun style of ornamentation can be best gathered by inspection of the mummies, or some of the beautiful volumes written by men who have made the subject a study. The work of the French professors, Description de l'egypte, made under the auspices of Napoleon, and Wilkinson's work on the manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians, will afford the best information extant, in book form. The embalming process of the most expensive kind cost about a talent of silver, over $1,000 of our money. the p
ed the following:— Great Mogul. Found in 1550, in Golconda, and seen by Tavernier. Weighed 793 carats; cut to 279 carats (carat, 4 grains). Russian. Taken from a Brahminical idol by a French soldier; sold to the Empress Catherine for £ 90,000 and an annuity of £ 4,000. Weighs 194 carats. Pitt. Brought from India by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the first Earl of Chatham; sold to the Regent Duke of Orleans, in 1717, for £ 135,000. Weighed when rough, 400 carats; cut to 136 1/2 carats. Napoleon placed it in the hilt of his sword. Koh-i-noor. Seen by Tavernier in 1665, in the possession of the Great Mogul. Seized by Nadir Shah, in 1739, at the taking of Delhi. Became the property of Runjeet Sing. Captured by the English at the taking of the Punjab. Presented to the Queen by the East India Company, in 1850; weighed in the rough 800 carats, cut to 186 1/16 carats; recut to 103 3/4 carats. — Brande. Austrian. A rose-cut diamond of 139 1/2 carats. Sir Isaac Newton suggest
780, 1,320, and 1,820 pounds. These were all made of bronze. During the war several kinds of rifled field-guns were introduced, but only two maintained their place in the military service; the 3-inch wrought-iron rifle and the Parrott 10-pounder of 2.9-inch caliber, each nearly the weight of the bronze 6-pounder, and carrying an elongated projectile of ten pounds weight. The smooth-bores generally were withdrawn from the field during the war, with the exception of the light 12-pounder, or Napoleon gun. Four smooth-bore guns and two howitzers, or six rifled or six 12-pounder guns with their carriages, caissons, forge, and battery-wagon, constitute a battery. No particular kind of breech-loading gun has been adopted in the United States Service, unless the Gatling machine-gun may be so classed. See battery-gun. Most, if not all, European governments have adopted breech-loaders of various kinds for field service. The English use the breech-loading Armstrong gun (see Armstrong-gu
klindonck, near Gueldres. The right company of each battalion was formerly composed of the taller men armed with hand-grenades. Hence the term grenadiers. Various forms of grenades have been invented, some containing combustibles, missiles of various sorts, Greek-fire, or other incendiary compounds. 6-pounders, and even larger shells, have been used as rampart grenades, being rolled over parapets against assailants. The Orsini grenades, with which an attempt was made to assassinate Louis Napoleon, were spherical shells containing powder and missiles, and having a large number of cones or nipples, each capped with a gun-cap. They were made in London. Gren′a-dine. (Fabric.) A gauzy dress goods, silk or wool, plain, colored, or embroidered. Grid. 1. A gridiron. 2. A grating of parallel bars, for a furnace, stove, window, vault-cover, or sewer opening. 3. A grating. Used as a concave, partially enclosing the toothed cylinder of a thrashing-machine, or the scutch
he hollowed stones yet mark the sites of their villages in those parts where corn was caltivated. The Mexicans use a spindle-shaped rub-stone in a hollow bedstone. Metallic buhr-mill. Hand-Pegger. Hand-planter. The almost universal form of hand-mill was two circular stones, the lower was the bed-stone and stationary, and had a central pivot for the upper one, which had an eye. The upper stone was turned by means of a vertical handle. See grinding-mill. The mill adopted by Napoleon, and used by him in his invasion of Russia in 1812, consisted of two circular cast-iron plates, about 12 inches in diameter, placed in a vertical position. One was fixed, the other rotated by a hand-crank. The plates were indented all over with radiating grooves, and the corn was conducted to the center, or eye, by a lateral hopper. The meal, as it was ground, was projected from the periphery by the centrifugal force of the revolving plate. Hebert's hand-mill (English) is adapted to g
it contained sulphur and nitrate of potash mixed with naphtha. See Greek-fire. The Arabs had an incendiary composition formed of sulphur, saltpeter, and sulphide of antimony, mixed into a paste with juice of black sycamore, liquid asphaltum, and quicklime. The French engineer Chevallier, about 1797, invented a compound which would burn under water. Shells, charged with this or a similar substance, are said to have been found on some of the ships of the French fleet which carried Napoleon and his army to Egypt, and were afterwards taken or destroyed by Nelson at the battle of the Nile. Rock-fire is one of the best known modern incendiary compositions; it burns slowly, is difficult to extinguish, and is used for setting fire to ships, buildings, etc. For putting in shells it is cast in cylindrical paper cases, having a priming in their axes. Rock-fire is composed of rosin, 3 parts; sulphur, 4; niter, 10; regulus of antimony, 1; mutton-tallow, 1; turpentine, 1. These ar
ted by the card while others pass though the holes therein, the latter thus determining which threads of the warp shall be raised. In this way the figure on the card determines the nature of the figure on the fabric. Jacquard, the inventor, was a straw-hat manufacturer at Lyons. His attention was first directed toward mechanical inventions by a reward being offered for the production of a machine for making nets. He produced the machine, but did not claim the reward. The attention of Napoleon was called to his inventive genius, and he was sent for to ascertain if he could not improve on a loom belonging to the government. This was designed for weaving shawl patterns in imitation of cashmere, and its setting up and arrangement were very troublesome and expensive. The great war minister Carnot is reported to have said to Jacquard, Are you the man who can do what the Almighty cannot: tie a knot on a stretched string? Jacquard, improving on the model of Vaucanson, produced the
avoid the noise. A spring wire locks the drawer, and is unlocked by the motion of the knob. Mon′ger. A small fishing-vessel. Mon′i-tor. The popular name for a class of American iron-clad vessels, having one or more turrets, and a peculiar formation of hull. So called from the first vessel of this construction, built for the United States by Captain John Ericsson, and launched early in 1862. The original Monitor was based on a system proposed by Captain Ericsson to the Emperor Louis Napoleon in 1854. In 1855 Captain Coles of the Royal Navy proposed a system of revolving turrets to the British government, which was adopted after the Monitor had demonstrated the value of the invention. Captain Coles was lost in the iron-clad frigate Captain, a vessel of his own construction, in a gale off Cape Finisterre in 1870. See Plate IV. for a view of the Captain. Prior to the inventions of Ericsson and Coles was a proposition of Mr. T. R. Timby, of Massachusetts, who sent d
Banvard, who floated down the river and took the sketches of prominent points and expressive features of the riverbanks. It gave rise to a host of similar productions : oceans and river routes, pilgrims' progresses, paradises lost, funerals of Napoleon, moral, immoral, and temperance serials, trades, arts, politics, overland routes to India, emigration to Australia and New Zealand, and, to cap the climax, a cyclorama of the great Lisbon earthquake, which happened about one hundred years previory of Samos was famous in the time of Homer Vases of many beautiful shapes, with single and double handles and very gorgeously colored, are shown in the magnificent French work, Description de l'egypte, par les Ordres de sa Majeste l'empereur Napoleon le Grand. The work is in the Congressional Library in Washington, and the illustrations are on Plate 92, Vol. II., in the portion of the volume treating of the Antiquities of Thebes. The Egyptian pottery in the Metropolitan Museum. New Yor
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