, al. Ἐνγαδδί
, al. Ἠνγαδδί
, LXX.; Ἐγγαδέ
, Joseph.; Ἐγ-γάδδα
, Ptol.: Eth. Ἐγγηδήνος
), a city in the wilderness of Judaea (Josh.
15.62), giving its name to a desert tract on the west of the Dead Sea (1 Sam.
24.2). Its more ancient name was Hazezon-tamar, when it was inhabited by the Amorites. (Genes.
14.7; 2 Chron.
It was celebrated in old times for its vineyards (Cant.
1.14), and Pliny reckons it second only to Jerusalem for its fertility and palmgroves (5.17).
It is misplaced by St. Jerome at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea (Comment. in Ezek.
47.10), and stated by Josephus to be 300 stadia from Jerusalem (Ant.
It gave its name to one of the fifteen toparchies of Judaea (B. J.
It took its name--“Fountain of the wild Goats” (still called ‘Ain-Jidiy
)--from a copiou [p. 1.827]
spring issuing out of the limestone rock at the base of an almost perpendicular cliff 800 or 1000 feet high, down the face of which was the only approach to the town, by a zigzag path cut in the rock.
The city was situated on a small plain between the fountain and the sea, and some faint traces of buildings may still be discovered. Owing to the enormous depression of the Dead Sea, the climate of this spot, shut in on all sides but the east by rocky mountains, has a temperature much higher than that of any other part of Palestine, and its fruits consequently ripen three weeks or a month before those of the hill country.
It is now inhabited only by a few Arabs, whose deformed and stunted growth bears witness to the relaxing influence of this almost tropical climate. (Reland, Palaestina,
p. 763; Robinson, Bib. Res.
vol. ii p. 209, &c.)