previous next


A sanctuary in the W Peloponnese, 18 km inland from the Ionian Sea, at the point where the Alpheios and Kladeos rivers meet (42 m), just S of the foot of the hill of Kronos (122.7 m). Throughout practically all of antiquity Olympia was under the control of Elis (q.v.). The settlement in the area of the shrine was continuously inhabited from the Early to the Late Helladic period (2800-1100 B.C.), as evidenced by the apsidal, rectangular, and elliptical structures of the Early and Middle Helladic periods which have been uncovered, as well as by numerous sherds, stone implements, and figurines of the EH, MH and LH periods. Similar buildings and small finds as well as an extensive cemetery with chamber tombs have been found in the area to the N (NW of the hill of Kronos), where stands the new Museum. The first signs of the cult of Pelops and Hippodameia at Olympia appeared as early as the LH period, as well as the first athletic contests. Of the tumuli of the two heroes remains were found only of the circular peribolos of Pelops, near the Pelopion of historical times. Recent objections to this identification have not been persuasive. The site of the Hippodameion remains unknown; it may have been in the S part of the Altis (Paus. 6.20.7; 5.15.7).

The cults of Kronos, Gaia, Eileithuia, Themis, et al., evidently date back to the same periods or even earlier. Their shrines center around the S foot of the hill of Kronos, whence come the majority of the prehistoric finds. With the predominance of the Aitolo-Dorian tribes of NW Greece in Elis after the Dorian invasion and the extension of their control over Olympia, which until then had been controlled by Pisa, the worship of Zeus was introduced to the Sanctuary. From that time to the beginning of the 8th c. the Sanctuary gradually developed, but its activities were limited to the area of Elis and perhaps the neighboring territories. From this period come numerous offerings: bronze and terracotta statuettes of men and animals, chiefly bulls and horses, as well as chariots and drivers, all of primitive workmanship. After 776 B.C. when the Games were reorganized and established as Panhellenic (this marks the beginning of the historical period), Olympia developed rapidly, and the number of terracotta and bronze offerings multiplies. The greatest number of these are statuettes of horses and horsemen, symbols of the equestrian aristocracy which had evidently replaced the monarchy. There are also bronze cauldrons and tripods, and weapons of excellent workmanship. During this period the sacred grove of Olympia, the Altis, which was planted with plane trees, wild olives, poplars, oaks, and pines (Paus. 5.7.7, 13.1-3, 27.11; Strab. 8.353) and enclosed by a low peribolos or fence, acquired a very few, simple structures: altars of the Gods, and the heroa of Pelops and Hippodameia. The single column that was left of Oinomaos megaron after Zeus, according to tradition, destroyed it with a lightning bolt, must also have been visible there; it was preserved into the time of Pausanias (5.20f). There was also the remnant of an ancient form of tree worship in a sacred wild olive tree which still flourished, and which Idaian Herakles, according to the myth, had brought from the lands of the Hyperboreians and planted there.

To the Geometric period belong the foundations of a rhomboid altar (?) built of unworked stones which was found within the site of the ancient Prytaneion and which may have been the precursor of the altar of Hestia. To the end of the Geometric period belongs one of the apsidal buildings, no. 4, which until recently was considered to be prehistoric. The site of the stadium of this period is not known; it may have been on the same site as was the archaic one. In the Archaic period (7th and 6th c.) the activities of the Sanctuary involved not only the world of mainland Greece, but the colonies around the Mediterranean. The increased importance of Olympia brought about its decoration with the first monumental structures. At the foot of the hill of Kronos was built the Temple of Hera. According to the usual modern view this was begun ca. 650 B.C. as a small Doric building with only a pronaos (10 x 39.5 m) and not until ca. 600 B.C. was it enlarged by the addition of an opisthodomos and peristyle colonnade (18.76 x 50 m; 6 x 16 columns). Recent researches have shown, however, that the whole building was completed at one time, ca. 600.

The Heraion, narrow and of heavy proportions, is the oldest example of a monumental temple in Greece. The lower part and the huge orthostat blocks of the cella are preserved and are of a local shell limestone, while the upper parts of the walls were of mud brick and the superstructure of wood with terracotta tiles on the roof. At the peak of each gable was a round terracotta acroterion. One of these has been restored (diam. 2.42 m) but of the other only a few fragments remain. The original wooden columns were gradually replaced, at long intervals, by stone ones. The last wooden one, made of oak, was preserved to the time of Pausanias, in the opisthodomos of the temple (Paus. 5.16.1). Each of the replacement columns was in the style of its own period, so that the columns as a whole provide an example of the development of the Doric column, particularly in respect to the capitals, from the archaic to the Roman period. At the back of the cella is preserved the bench on which rested the stone statues of Hera and Zeus (Paus. 5.17.1). Only the head of Hera has been found.

Along a natural terrace on the S slope of the hill of Kronos, a little above the Heraion, the treasuries were built in the 6th c. These are naiskoi of megaron form, dedicated by the Greek cities, particularly by colonies. The oldest of these, the Sikyonian treasury in its first phase, was about contemporary with the Heraion, while the newer ones belong to the first half of the 5th c. (the Treasuries of Sikyon and Gela in their second phase). Arranged one beside the other, they border the N edge of the Altis. Pausanias (6.19.1f) gives their names. The remains of 15 are preserved, but two of them only as traces—the two under the Exedra of Atticus. Five only are certainly identified: the Treasuries of Sikyon, Selinos, Metapontis, Megara, and Gela. Numerous architectural fragments of the first and last have been preserved. Of the pedimental sculptures of the Treasuries only a few pieces remain, with the exception of the Treasury of the Megarians of which the pedimental sculptures, although badly mutilated, are preserved. They are carved in high relief. The treasuries, which may at first have had a sacred purpose, were later used to safeguard valuable offerings (Paus. 6.19.lf). The stepped supporting wall in front of the treasuries was built later, in 330 B.C.

The Pelopion (Paus. 5.13.1) was renewed in the 6th c. Its peribolos at that time had five sides and a propylon, which was replaced in the 5th c. by a more monumental one. Recent theory dating the Pelopion to the 4th c. does not seem well founded. To the late 6th c. belongs the older Prytaneion with the seats of the Prytanei at the N corner of the Altis. The sacred hearth with its everlasting fire was in a special area of the same building (Paus. 5.19.9). In the following centuries the Prytaneion was enlarged and continually altered.

No trace of the Great Altar of Zeus SE of the Temple of Hera is preserved (Paus. 5.13.8). Since it was a mound slowly built up from the ashes of sacrifices and from the altar of the Prytaneion (Paus. 5.13; 15.9), it melted away in the rains after worship at the sanctuary ceased. The area in front of the Altar and particularly the slope of the terrace where the treasuries stood was perhaps the Theater mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. 7.4. 31), so called from its view of the sacrifices at the Altar and of other rites.

The archaic stadium, which was plain and had banks not of the usual form, stretched along the slope in front of the treasuries. Its W end, where the starting line was, opened out towards the Great Altar of Zeus. The stadium of the 5th c. was on the same spot or a little to the E, but this one had a track at a lower level and the banks, now more nearly normal, along the long sides; it formed part of the sacred area, since the games had a clearly religious character. But in the mid-4th c. a new stadium was built, which is still visible 82 m to the E and 7 m N of its predecessor. It was outside the sanctuary, since the games had begun to be more secular in character. The track of the new stadium was 215.54 m long and ca. 28.5 m wide, while the stone starting-points were 192.28 m apart as opposed to the 186 m of the Classical stadium. The banks enclosed the track on four sides and could hold 45,000 spectators. There were only a few stone seats for important persons; others sat directly on the ground. The exedra for the Hellanodikai (judges) was of stone, and was opposite the altar of Demeter Chamyne (Paus. 6.20.9). In the Roman period the exedra was given a more resplendent form and the stadium was remodeled twice. In the Hellenistic period the NW corner of the stadium communicated with the sanctuary through a narrow, roofed corridor, the Krypte (Paus. 5.20.8), which had Corinthian columns at its W end. To the NE of the archaic stadium was a bronze-smelting establishment, and a large number of wells to provide water for the thousands of spectators during the period of the games. Thousands of earlier dedications were thrown into them in the Classical period when the stadium was moved to the E and covered this spot.

The hippodrome, which had a length of four stadia (ca. 780 m) has not been excavated and has probably, at least in part, been washed away by the Alpheios river. It was S of the stadium and parallel to it. When it took its final form in the Classical period, Kleoitas worked out a new arrangement of the starting gates (Paus. 6.20. lOf). The S end of the sanctuary was closed off in the mid-6th c. by the S building of the Bouleuterion (14 x 30.5 m). This was a rectangular building with an apse at one of its short ends, a continuation of the type of prehistoric and Geometric building found in the Altis. In the 5th c. a second apsidal room was added parallel to the first, and between them a rectangular room where stood the Altar of Zeus Horkios. Here the athletes made their prescribed vows (orkoi) before the Games. These three buildings were enlarged in the 4th c. by an Ionic portico across the E face. The chronology and purpose of the two structures W of the Bouleuterion are uncertain.

In the 5th c. the sanctuary reached its peak of greatness and wealth. The Truce, which had been in operation from the archaic period on, and the recognition of Elis as “sacred and unassailable” (Polyb. 4.73) secured the unhampered development and prosperity of the area and of the sanctuary. At this time the most important building, the gigantic Temple of Zeus, was erected in the middle of the Altis. It was begun ca. 470 B.C., immediately after the reorganization of the state, at the same time as Elis synoecism, and it was finished in 456. The temple, Doric peripteral (27.68 x 64.12 m; 6 x 13 columns), was the work of the Elian architect Libo. It is the largest temple in the Peloponnese and was considered the finest expression and the standard of Doric temple architecture. It was constructed of local shell limestone, covered with white stucco. Only the roof and sima and lion-head water spouts were made of Parian marble, although later the frequent local earthquakes made replacements of Pentelic marble necessary. Each of the continual repairs was in the style of its own period. The marble pedimental groups on the E end represented the chariot race of Oinomaos and Pelops with Zeus in the center, and on the W end the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs at the marriage of Peirithoos and Deidameia, with Apollo in the center. The twelve metopes, six each above the entrances of the pronaos and opisthodomos, represent the twelve labors of Herakles. These sculptures, now more or less restored, are the most representative examples of the severe style of Greek art from the period after the Persian wars. The central acroterion at each pediment was a gilded Nike, the work of Paionios, and the corner acroteria were gilded cauldrons. The chryselephantine statue of Zeus seated on a throne, the work of Phidias, was placed at the back of the cella in 430 B.C. Of this masterpiece, described in detail by Pausanias (5.10. if) nothing remains but some representations, chiefly on coins of Elis. The gigantic figure (12.37 m) held in his right hand a chryselephantine Nike and in his left a scepter. The throne and base were decorated with mythical scenes, and with gods, demigods, and heroes made of gold, ebony, and precious stones. For the making of this piece a workshop (ergasterion) was put up W of the temple (Paus. 5.15.1) which survived, with various changes, until the late Roman period. It measured 14.57 x 32.18 m, and in and around it were found numerous tools, glass ornaments, clay molds and other artists' materials which definitely belong to the period of the chryselephantine Zeus.

Two other buildings were erected at about the same time N of the workshop. One of them, rectangular with a peristyle court, is probably identified with the Theokoleon, the meeting place of the Theokoloi, the priests of Olympia (Paus. 5.15.8). This was altered and enlarged to the E and S in the Hellenistic period. The other building, W of the Theokoleon, consists of a circle inside a square and is called the Heroon in a later Hellenistic inscription found on the spot. A recent theory that this was originally a bath and was later dedicated to its anonymous Hero is not based on any sound evidence. To the W again, towards the Kladeos river, were the baths (Loutra, 5.75 x 21.56 m) and a swimming pool (kolymbeterion, 16 x 24 m). The baths were enlarged in 300 B.C. and again in 100 B.C., when a hypocaust was put in underneath; the building was abandoned in the Roman period when baths were built in many parts of the sanctuary.

The later Classical period was for Elis one of internal problems and clashes with her neighbors, especially when the Arkadians took Olympia in 364 B.C. and with the Pisans directed the games of that Olympiad (104th 0l.). They withdrew in 362 B.C. and Elis again took over supervision of the sanctuary. These disturbances, however, did not prevent new building activity, which gave the sanctuary its final form and architectural organization. For the first time the delicate Ionic order and its relative, the Corinthian, were brought into the sanctuary, which had been dominated by the Doric. In the newer buildings white marble was used to the almost complete exclusion of the shell limestone previously employed. These were signs of a general change in the character of the sanctuary. When the stadium was shifted E to its present position, the isolation of the Altis was completed with the erection of the Stoa of the Echo (or the Seven Echo stoa) 12.50 x 98 m along its E side. The name came from the fact that an echo in it was proliferated seven times. It was also called The Painted Stoa (Poikile) from the wall paintings in it (Paus. 5.21.17; Plin. NH 36.100). It was built shortly after 350 B.C. and had two colonnades: the inner one was Doric and the outer may have been Corinthian; there were also rooms along the back.

At this period the main sanctuary (ca. 200 x 175 m) was separated from the supporting complex and the secular buildings by a monumental peribolos with five gates, three on the W side and two at the S. At the beginning of the 4th c. the Metroon, the Temple of Kybele, mother of the gods, was built in front of the terrace on which the treasuries stood. Of this temple, which was Doric peripteral (10.62 x 20.67 m; 6 x 11 columns), only the stylobate and portions of the stone epistyle are preserved, and of the pedimental sculptures only a marble statue of Dionysos reclining. From the time of Augustus on the metroon was used for the worship of the Roman emperors; sculptured portraits of many of them stood in the temple. Along the treasury terrace, between the metroon and the stadium, are preserved the bases of 16 bronze statues of Zeus, the Zanes. These were set up between 378 B.C. and A.D. 125 with the money paid as a fine by athletes who had committed fouls in winning the Games (Paus. 5.21.2f). The S boundary of the sanctuary in its larger sense was defined by the south stoa (80.56 m long), which had two colonnades, the outer Doric and the inner Corinthian, with a wall at the back. The stoa was in the form of a T with a colonnaded extension in its center towards the Alpheios river; it was built at the same time as the Stoa of the Echo, and its euthynteria and steps were similarly of marble. The recently suggested identification of this stoa with the proedria (Paus. 5.15.4) is not based on any evidence.

At the beginning of the 4th or end of the 5th c. B.C. the SE building was erected, which according to one opinion is the Sanctuary of Hestia (Xen. Hell. 7.4.31). The W part is preserved, a row of four rooms with Doric colonnades on their four sides (14.66 x 36.42 m). The building was altered and expanded to the E in the Hellenistic period. At the SE corner of the Hellenistic addition, an early 5th c. altar of Artemis was recently found. The SE building was destroyed in the 1st c. A.D. for the foundations of a peristyle villa, probably built for Nero.

The elegant circular peripteral building S of the Prytaneion, the Philippeion (diam. 15.24 m) was begun by Philip II after the battle of Chaironeia (338 B.C.) but finished by his son, Alexander the Great. It stood on a marble stepped krepidoma, mostly preserved, and was surrounded by an Ionic colonnade. Corinthian half-columns were placed at intervals around the interior of the circular cella, at the back of which, opposite the entrance, were five portrait statues standing on a semicircular base, representing Alexander the Great between his parents and his grandfathers. These statues were the work of Leochares and were of gold and ivory (Paus. 5.20.9). This type of circular building, used earlier for divine worship, was now for the first time utilized for worship of the hero cult of the Macedonian dynasty.

In the W part of the sanctuary, S of the Workshop of Phidias, stood the hostelry called the Leonidaion, built in 330 B.C., named for its donor and architect, Leonidas of Naxos. It is 74.82 by 81.08 m and on all four sides its rooms open inward on a peristyle court with Doric columns. On the outside the building was surrounded by an Ionic colonnade. Originally intended for distinguished visitors and illustrious spectators, the building was later used as a residence for Roman officials (Paus. 5.15.lf).

In the Hellenistic period (3d-1st c. B.C.) there was no new building in the middle of the main sanctuary. There was only restoration and repair, with very few enlargements, at fairly frequent intervals, because severe earthquakes were common. Vigorous building activity however, went on outside the area of the Altis, to provide comfortable accommodation for athletes and spectators.

To the W of the Altis, near the Kladeos, the Palaestra, was built in the 4th c., a training ground for practice in wrestling, boxing, and jumping. It was a nearly square (66.35 x 66.75 m) building with a peristyle court, around which were covered areas for dressing, applying oil, sand, etc. The columns of the peristyle were Doric, but those of the entrances to the rooms were Ionic. To the N of the Palaestra and connected with it was the gymnasium, an enclosed, rectangular building (120 x 220 m) with a wide court in the center and colonnades on the four sides. The columns were Doric on the long sides and Ionic on the short. Here the athletes trained for contests demanding space, such as javelin throwing, discus throwing, and running. This was built in the early 2d c. B.C., while the monumental entrance between the gymnasium and the Palaestra, in the form of an amphiprostyle Corinthian propylon, belongs rather to the late 2d c. B.C.

The sanctuary was crowded with thousands of altars and statues of gods, demigods, and heroes, of Olympic victors and kings and generals, the work of the most notable sculptors of antiquity (Paus. 5.14.4f; 21.lf; 6.1.lf). Very few statues remain, but a large number of bases have been found. Similar statues were put up in Roman times, but these were mostly of Roman notables and emperors, and were erected not by their own choice but by cities and private persons who wished to secure their good will. By that time the best of the older works had been moved into the Heraion, which took on the appearance of a museum (Paus. 5.17.lf).

In 146 B.C., the consul Mummius dedicated 21 gilded shields after his victory over the Greeks at the Isthmus. He fixed them on the metopes of the Temple of Zeus. On the other hand, in 85 B.C. Sulla robbed the treasuries of the sanctuary (as well as those of Epidaurus and Delphi) to meet the demands made by the war against Mithridates. Sulla decided to shift the Olympic games to Rome and organized the 175th Olympiad (80 B.C.) there, but Olympia recovered from this period of decline in the time of Augustus, after 31 B.C. Roman emperors and magistrates showed their interest in the sanctuary and the Games in different ways which harmonized with their political programs in Greece. Under Nero the Altis was enlarged and surrounded by a new peribolos, 3 m wider on the W side than the old one, and 20 m on the S. The simple gates of the sanctuary were replaced by monumental propylaea. At about the same time baths were erected W of the Greek baths and N of the Prytaneion. Later other baths were built NE of Nero's villa, and W of the Bouleuterion. Another hotel (xenodocheion) rose W of Phidias' Workshop, and during this period the older buildings were maintained or altered. Finally, in A.D. 160 Herodes Atticus built a magnificent fountain, the Nymphaion or Exedra (width 33 m, ht. ca. 13 m). It took the form of a semicircle with a circular naiskos at each of the two ends. The walls were of brick faced with polychrome marble. Above the semicircular wall and in the apsidal recesses that made up the central facade were 20 statues of Antoninus Pius and his family as well as the family of Herodes Atticus. The space between the two naiskoi was occupied by two basins, one in front of the semicircular wall and the other on a lower platform. The water, brought from an abundant spring 4 km W of Olympia, ran first into the upper, semicircular basin, next into the lower rectangular one, and then, via a network of conduits, throughout the whole sanctuary.

The first serious destruction to the monuments of the sanctuary came with the threat of the Herulian invasion. In the end the invasion did not reach as far as Olympia, but a strong wall was built to protect the richer treasuries and particularly the chryselephantine statue of Zeus. This wall, which used to be thought Byzantine, surrounded the Temple of Zeus and the S part of the sanctuary up to the south stoa. It was built with material from other buildings, both within and without the sanctuary, which were demolished for the purpose, except for the Temple of Hera.

Even in this crippled state and although it continued to decline, the sanctuary lasted for another century. There were some restorations in this period, particularly in the time of Diocletian (A.D. 285-305). The end came in A.D. 393-394 with the decree of Theodosius I, which prohibited worship in pagan sanctuaries. In A.D. 426 an edict of Theodosius II caused the ruin of the monuments of the Altis, and it was completed by two violent earthquakes in 522 and 551. In the 5th and 6th c. there was a small settlement of Christians at Olympia, and the Workshop of Phidias, the only building left whole, was changed into a Christian basilica. The floods of the Alpheios and Kladeos and the earth washing down from the sandy hill of Kronos covered almost the whole of the sanctuary to a depth of 7 m. The Kladeos also changed its course and, washing through the sanctuary, swept away many of the buildings in the W part. The first discoveries of the monuments of Olympia were made in 1829; systematic excavation began in 1875 and has continued to the present day.


A. Blouet, Expédition scientifique de Morée I (1831) 56ffMPI; A. Bötticher, Olympia2 (1886)MPI; E. Curtius & F. Adler, Olympia. Die Ergebnisse 5 vols. (1890-97)MPI (new ed. 1966); B. Leonardos, Olympia (1901); D. Arch. Inst., Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Olympia 8 vols., continuing (1937-)PI; J. Wiesner, RE XVIII, 1 (1939) s.v. Olympia 1ff; E. Kunze, Olympische Forschungen 6 vols. & atlas (1944-66)PI; id., Olympia: Neue deutsche Ausgrabungen im Mittelmeergebiet und im vorderen Orient (1959) 263ffMPI; I. Ι. Κοντῆς, Τό Ἱερόν τῆς Ὀλυμπίας, κατα τόν Δ ' π. Χ. αἰῶνα (1958)PI; H. Berve et al., Griechische Tempel und Heiligtumer (1961) 10ff, 118ffPI; U. Jantzen, EAA V (1963) 635ffPI; N. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος περιήγησις, Books V & VI (1965); G. Gruben, Die Tempel der Griechen (1966) 43ffMPI; W. Dörpfeld, Alt Olympia2 (1966)PI; E. Kirsten & W. Kraiker, Griechenland Kunde5 I (1967) 265ffMPI; E. Meyer, Pausanias' Beschreibung Griechenlands2 (1967) 605ffMPI; id., Der kleine Pauly 4 (1972) 279ff s.v. Olympia; L. Drees, Olympia (1968)MPI; P. Grunauer, “Der Zeustempel in Olympia,” Berr. der Koldway Gesellschaft 25 (1969) 13ffPI; id., “Der Zeustempel in Olympia,” BonnJbb 171 (1971) 1 14ffPI; S. Miller, “The Prytaneion at Olympia,” AthMitt 86 (1971) 79ffPI; W. Hoepfner, “Zwei Ptolemaierbauten,” ibid. Suppl. 1 (1971)PI; N. Yalouris, “Das Akroter der Heraions in Olympia,” ibid. 87 (1972)PI; id., Olympia (1972)MPI; A. Mallwitz, Olympia und seine Bauten (1972)PI; H. V. Herrmann & M. Hirmer, Olympia, Heiligtum und Wettkampfstätte (1972)MPI.

Cult, games, history: F. Mezö, Geschichte der Olympischen Spiele (1930)PI; L. Deubner, Kult und Spiele im alten Olympia (1936)PI; L. Ziehen, RE XVII, 2 (1937) 252ff s.v. Olympia; K. Meuli, “Der Ursprung der Olympischen Spiele,” Die Antike 17 (1941) 189ff; L. Moretti, “Olympionikai, i vincitori negli antichi agoni,” MemLinc ser. 8, 8, 2 (1957) 53ff; id., “Supplemente al Katalogo degli Olympionikai,” Klio 52 (1970) 295ff; International Olympic Academy, Reports 12 vols. (1961-72)I; H. V. Herrmann, “Zur ältesten Geschichte von Olympia,” AthMitt 77 (1962) 3ffMPI; W. Rudolf, Olympischer Kampfsport in der Antike (1965)I; N. E. Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World2 (1967)I; A. Hönle, Olympia in der Politik der griechischen Staatswelt (1968); J. Jüthner, Die athletischen Leibesübungen der Griechen (1968)PI; H. Bengston, Die Olympische Spiele in der Antike (1971); H. A. Harris, Greek Athletes and Athletics (1972)I.

Art: C. Seltmann, The temple coins of Olympia (1921)I; E. Buschor & R. Hamann, Die Skulpturen des Zeustempels zu Olympia (1924)I; id., “Die Olympiameister,” AthMitt 51 (1926) 163ff; W. Hege & G. Rodenwaldt, Olympia (1936)MPI; G. Becatti, Problemi Fidiaci (1951)I; id., “Controversie Olympiche,” Studi Miscellanei 18 (1971) 67ffI; J. Liegle, Der Zeus der Phidias (1952)I; C. M. Kraay, Greek Coins (1966)I; G. Richter, “The Pheidian Zeus at Olympia,” Hesperia 35 (1966) 166ffI; B. Ashmole & N. Yalouris, The Sculptures of the Temple of Zeus (1967)PI; J. Fink, Der Thron des Zeus in Olympia (1967)I; E. Simon, “Zu den Giebeln des Zeustempel von Olympia,” AthMitt 83 (1968) 147ffI; W. Heilmeyer, “Giessereibetriebe in Olympia,” JdI 84 (1969) 1ffI; F. Eckstein, ΑΝΑΘΗΜΑΤΑ (1969)PI; B. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (1970)I; M.-L. Säflund, The East Pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (1970)PI; B. Ashmole, Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece (1972)MPI.


hide References (25 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (25):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.10
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.13
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.13.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.13.8
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.14.4
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.15
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.15.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.15.4
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.15.8
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.16.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.17
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.17.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.19.9
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.20
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.20.8
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.20.9
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.21.17
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.21.2
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7.7
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.19
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.19.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.20
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.20.7
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 6.20.9
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.4.31
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: