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Document Max. Freq Min. Freq
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 191 191 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 7, 4th edition. 184 184 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 6, 10th edition. 42 42 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 35 35 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 18 18 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 13 13 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 11 11 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 7 7 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry Walcott Boynton, Reader's History of American Literature 7 7 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 8 6 6 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1774 AD or search for 1774 AD in all documents.

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combination with the lime, the ammoniacal chloride parting with its chlorine to form the chloride of lime, which is readily dissolved in water. MacBRIDEride, in 1774, showed the property possessed by hydrochloric acid of dissolving the lime in the manner accomplished by the bate. Turnbull used sugar in the proportion of foure was in its earliest infancy. The next improvement was the substitution of dilute sulphuric acid for sour milk. This reduced the time one half. Scheele, in 1774, had discovered chlorine; and Berthollet, in 1784, ascertained that an aqueous solution of chlorine discharged vegetable colors. This he communicated to Watt, andortional to the number of rays concentrated in a given area, or to the relative circular areas of the lens and the spot on which the refracted rays fall. About 1774, M. de Trudano constructed a hollow glass lens, of 11 feet focus, filled with oil of turpentine, of which it held 140 Paris pints (nearly equal to the same number
s three days in about that period. The Protestant States of Germany adopted the New Style at various times from 1700 to 1774. Great Britain adopted the New Style by act of Parliament, September, 1752; the 3d of the month being called the 14th. Ininen chain and cotton filling were allowed to be printed, paying an excise duty equal to twelve cents per square yard. In 1774 this restriction was removed, all cotton printed goods were allowed to be made; the duty was reduced to six cents per squa in 1753, proposed insulated wires, suspended by poles, as electrical conductors for transmitting messages. Lesarge, in 1774, used twenty-four electrized wires and a pith-ball electrometer as a mode of signaling. Lomond, in 1787, used one wire an794. Dressing-machine, Johnson and Radcliffe, 1802– 1804. Power-loom, Horrocks, 1803-1813. Mule, Samuel Crompton, 1774-1779. Self-acting mule, Roberts, 1825. See cotton, flax, wool, hemp, silk, etc., appliances, p. 631. A cotton-fac
. This also allowed the bell to be completely filled with air, rendering the whole of its interior space available. Halley also invented a waterproof cap to which pipes leading to the bell were attached, so that an operator could leave the bell and walk on the bottom outside, being supplied with air by the pipe. This resembled in some respects the modern submarine armor, helmet, and diving-dress, which had been in occasional use since early in the sixteenth century (ut supra). Spalding, in 1774, made farther improvements by suspending a balance-weight from the bell that on striking bottom took off the weight of the bell, which with its included air, being too light to sink, was more readily raised or lowered by the admission of air or water into an upper compartment, placing it completely under the control of those within it. For this the British Government decreed him a reward. The celebrated engineer Smeaton, about the year 1779, first used it for engineering purposes, and in 178
in 1753, proposed a series of wires from the ends of which were to be suspended light balls marked with the letters of the alphabet, or bells which were to be moved by an electric current directed to the appropriate wire. Lesage, at Geneva, in 1774, actually constructed a telegraph arranged in this manner, the end of each wire having a pith-ball electroscope attached. Lamond, in 1787, employed a single wire, employing an electrical machine and electroscope in each of two rooms, and thus t Alexandria in honey, and was then embalmed in regular order. The Emperor Julian II. was placed in honey mixed with spices. Wax and waxen cerecloth were used for centuries in England. The body of one of the Edwards, interred 1307 and exhumed 1774, was preserved in natural shape, but fragile. The body of Lord Nelson was sent to England in a puncheon of rum. The sailors ran foul of the cask, and, getting drunk, playfully called it tapping the admiral. The poor man was nearly dry by the t
determined; but the holy fires of Baku, on the shore of the Caspian, have attained some celebrity, and are maintained by a natural stream of carbureted hydrogen. Paracelsus remarked the disengagement of gas when iron was dissolved in sulphuric acid. Van Helmont, a Belgian chemist, gave it the name of gas, and distinguished gases from atmospheric air, and also, on account of their non-condensibility, from vapors. Van Helmont died in 1644. Oxygen was first discovered by Dr. Priestley in 1774; he obtained it by heating red oxide of mercury, and called it dephlogisticated air. Scheele and Lavoisier a year or two later made the same discovery, independently of the English inventor, as Humboldt thinks. It was termed empyreal air by Scheele; vital air by Cordorcet. The name oxygen was given to it by Lavoisier. Black and Cavendish, in 1766, showed that carbonic acid (fixed air) and hydrogen gas (combustible air) are specifically distinct aeriform fluids. Gas was distilled fr
men period and the early patents of Watt, which concerned the separate condenser, parallel motion, four-way cock, puppet-valves, and some other features of the engine now known as the Cornish (which see). Watt subsequently used actual pressure of steam, was the first to use it expansively by cutting off at a part of the stroke, and also invented double-action engines in which the steam was admitted to alternate sides of the piston, making both motions effective. He made drawings for this in 1774, and exhibited it in 1782. He called it a double-engine, which must not be confounded with the doublecylinder engine of Hornblower of Penryhn, patented in 1781, revived by Woolf, and much improved by Worthington. See plate opposite page 763. Oliver Evans of Philadelphia has hardly had sufficient credit for his part in the matter, but he struggled for many years to make his townsmen believe that the high-pressure, double-acting engine was to be the engine of the future, both on roads and
olcos or drawing-place, 40 stadia or 5 miles in length, the narrowest passage between the two gulfs. A canal was attempted at this point by Julius Caesar, Caligula, Nero; the ridge of native rock defeated all the attempts; it is very hard, and can hardly be worked without blasting. The incline was again used in the wars of the Genoese and Turks. Inclined planes and lifts for raising and lowering canal-boats from one level to another, as a substitute for locks, are mentioned by Smeaton in 1774. Both systems are used on the English canals, in the neighborhood of Taunton; 80 feet of rise are overcome in this way. The inclined plane has a steam-engine on the summit, which, by means of a drum and chain, hauls up the cradle containing the boat. The lifts are worked by one attendant, who can raise or lower a boat from one level to another. There are two lock-chambers, over which is a lofty frame, having large wheels and chains, by which are suspended the cradles, into which the
s of music, as far as any master shall be able to play them upon the organ, harpsichord, etc. (Phil. Tran., 1747.) Creed invented a machine for this purpose in England in 1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of Hohlfield was attachable to any instrument. Descriptions were transmitted to the Academy of Berlin in 1752, and published in Brunswick in 1774. Mus′ket. (Fire-arms.) The fire-arm of the infantry soldier. It superseded the arquebus, on which it was an improvement. Formerly, smoothbore and muzzle-loading, modern progress has improved it into the rifled breech-loader of the present. See fire-arms. Mus′ket-oon. A short musket used by cavalry and artillery previous to the introduction of breechloaders. Mus′lin. (Fabric.) A bleached or unbleached thin white cotton cloth, unprinted and undyed; finer than calico
ng harpsichord of 1760: By drawing out the keys the hammers are transferred to different strings, by which means a composition is transposed half a note, a whole note, or a flat third lower at pleasure. In 1730 Harris took an English patent for his harpsichord, with two sets of strings, on which may be played either one unison or two; or two unisons and an octave together, and the Fortes and the Pianos, etc. Plenius, in 1741, also refers to the forte and piano capacity of his instrument. In 1774, the patent of Merlin described a new-invented kind of compound harpsichord, in which, besides the jacks with quills, a set of hammers of the nature of those used in the kind of harpsichords called piano-forte, are introduced, etc. Piano-Forte movements. A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711. B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action. The hammer-harpsichord, so called from the substitution of hammers for plectra, was the first piano-forte, and invented by Cristofori of Fl
them out so as to assume a direction longitudinal of the bar, some extraneous matters being also removed in the operation. In the year 1783, Henry Cort, of Gosport, England, received an English patent for the rolling of iron, as a substitute for hammering. During the following year he patented the puddling process. Cort is the greatest name on record in the History of iron. Plain rolls for reducing metal were in use before Cort's invention, and are mentioned in Dr. Johnson's Tour, 1774:— We then saw a brass works, where the lapis calaminaris is gathered, broken, washed from the earth, and the lead (though how the lead was separated I did not see) then calcined, afterward ground fine and then mixed by fire with copper. We saw several strong fires with melting-pots, but the construction of the fireplaces I did not learn. At a copper works, which receives its pigs of copper, I think, from Warrington, we saw a plate of copper put hot between steel rollers and spread thin.
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