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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 234 234 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 54 54 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 43 43 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 40 40 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 24 24 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 24 24 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 20 20 Browse Search
Margaret Fuller, Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli (ed. W. H. Channing) 16 16 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 16 16 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 1 15 15 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1839 AD or search for 1839 AD in all documents.

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n improvement upon Porter's, with some modifications in the shape of the flukes and their horns. Lenox's improvement (1832-39) consisted in an improved mode of welding, and in rounding off the sharp edges and lines; also in reducing the size of the e variations are found in the formulas, comparatively few agreeing even in the composition of Babbitt's metal, patented in 1839, and so much used throughout this country and in Europe. The following table will give the composition of several: — T reflected light of the sun, so as to illuminate the object whose character or position it was desired to ascertain. In 1839, Thornthwaite (England) adopted a waist-belt of india-rubber cloth, to which was connected a small, strong copper vessel cThe valve consisted of a thick cord saturated with a composition of wax and tallow. Clegg patented some improvements in 1839. Clegg's valve closed. Clegg's valve open. The valve works on a hinge of leather or other flexible material, which
B. Bab′bitt-met′al. An alloy, consisting of 9 parts of tin and 1 of copper, used for journal-boxes; so called from its inventor, Isaac Babbitt, of Boston (patent, 1839). Some variations have been made, and among the published recipes are Copper11 Regulus of antimony15 Tin1050 Another recipe substitutes zinc for antimony. The term is commonly applied to any white alloy for bearings, as distinguished from the box-metal or brasses in which copper predominates. Bab′bitt-ing-jig. (Machinery.) A tool used in babbitting the shafts and journals of machines. It holds the parts — of a harvester, for instance — in their respective positions, and also in proper relation to their boxings, so that the anti-friction metal may be run around each of the journals in succession. Ba′by-jump′er. A cradle, basket, or sling in which a child is suspended. The suspensory cord is usually adjustable as to length, and, being elastic, permits a saltatory motion. Ba
ucture of the eye. The theory of optical sensation was laid down by Alhazen the Saracen, A. D. 1100. See binocular glasses. Baptista Porta, in 1589, mentions it in his book on Natural magic. Sir Isaac Newton remodeled it, 1700. Daguerre, in 1839, rendered the images obtained therein permanent, after Wedgewood, Davy, and Niepce had only partially succeeded. See photography. The camera-obscura as described by Baptista Porta is a dark chamber of cylindrical form, with a lens at one end on two carbon points, between which passes a current of electricity. See electric light. Carbon-om′e-ter. An instrument to detect the presence of an excess of carbonic acid by its action upon lime-water. Car′bon-print′ing. In 1838 or 1839, Mr. Mungo Ponton first pointed out the effect of light in producing colorable changes in compounds of bichromate of potassa and organic matters. Mr. Fox Talbot appears to have been the first to appreciate the effect of light in rendering insolub<
the Newcomen engine, improved by Smeaton9,500,000. In 1778 to 1815, the Watt engine20,000,000 In 1820, the improved Cornish engine, average duty28,000,000 In 1826, the improved Cornish engine, average duty30,000,000 Pounds, 1 foot high. In 1827, the improved Cornish engine, average duty32,000,000 In 1828, the improved Cornish engine, average duty37,000,000 In 1829, the improved Cornish engine, average duty41,000,000 In 1830, the improved Cornish engine, average duty43,350,000 In 1839, the improved Cornish engine, average duty54,000,000 In 1850, the improved Cornish engine, average duty60,000,000 Consolidated mines, highest duty 182767,000,000 Fowey Consols (Cornwall), highest duty 183497,000,000 United mines, highest duty 1842108,000,000 D-valve. A species of slide-valve, employed chiefly in the steam-engine, and adapted to bring each steam-port alternately in communication with the steam and exhaust respectively. Dwang. 1. A large iron bar-wrench used to
e chronograph. E-lec′tro-blast′ing. Blasting by means of an electric or electro-magnetic battery, communicating through connecting wires with the charges of powder. It was first tried in blowing up the sunken hull of the Royal George, in 1839, by Colonel Pasley. In 1840 the plan was used in Boston Harbor by Captain Paris. In 1843, by Cubitt, for overthrowing a large section of Round-down Cliff, Kent, England, in making a portion of the Southeastern Railway. The mass dislodged means of an engine of his invention, attaining a speed of nineteen miles an hour. Various forms of electro-magnetic engines have also been invented by Wheatstone, Talbot, Hearder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of St. Petersburg, in 1838-39, succeeded in propelling a boat upon the Neva at the rate of four miles an hour, by means of a machine on this principle. The boat was 28 feet long, about 7 feet wide, drew about 3 feet water. The battery used consisted of sixty-four pairs of pla
th the object the line of fire is directed. Trigger-plate; the iron plate in which the triggers work. Worm; the screw at the end of the ramrod. Of the gun-lock the parts are the Bridle.Sear-spring. Chain, or swivel.Spring-cramp. Cock, or hammer.Trigger. Lock-plate.Tumbler. Main-spring.Tumbler-screw. See gun-lock. Sear. The first patent in the United States for a breechloading fire-arm was to Thornton and Hall of North Yarmouth, Mass., May 21, 1811. Between that time and 1839 more than 10,000 of these arms were made and were issued to the troops in garrison and on the frontier. This gun is represented at N, Plate 16, and had a breech-block, which was hinged on an axial pin at the rear, and tipped upwardly at front to expose the front end of the charge-chamber. The flint-lock and powder-pan were attached to the vibrating breech-block. The arm is shown and described in detail in General Norton's American breech-loading small-arms, New York, 1872. Before the wa
ut the portion which has been acted on by light forms a tough, tawny substance which is unaffected by the hot water. The discovery of this action was made in various steps, the first change of color being announced by Mr. Mungo Ponton as early as 1839. This remarkable property was finally laid hold of by experimentalists, and two groups of processes have been founded upon it. In the first group, this action is brought into play in the production of every proof. That is to say, every picture ie the whole mass so hardened to- gether as to acquire the consistence and strength of a solid rock. — Weale. b. A finishing or setting coat of fine stuff for ceilings. Grove Batter-y. A form of double-fluid galvanic battery, invented in 1839 by William Robert Grove, F. R. S. It has a glass jar or cell in which is placed a plate of zinc bent into cylindrical form, and thoroughly amalgamated. Within the zinc is a porous cup, in which is placed a strip of platinum. In the outer cup i
f sides and ends on which the sash of a hot-bed rest. Hot-blast. A blast of air heated previous to its introduction into the smelting-furnace. The process was invented by Nielson, of Glasgow, Scotland, and patented in 1828. In 1845, Budd patented in England the utilization of the heated gases from the blastfurnace for heating the blast. By means of the hot-blast, anthracite coals were used successfully in smelting iron in Wales, in 1837, and at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, in 1838, 1839. Hot-blast Fur′nace. The temperature of the air, previous to its being thrown upon the charge in the furnace, is raised to about 600° in an outer chamber or in a series of pipes. These are variously arranged. In that illustrated (A, Fig. 2588), the air is first condensed in an exterior chamber, whence it is forced into the pipe a within the reverberatory furnace b. Branches from this pipe terminate in the tuyeres on each side of the furnace, which has a separate fireplace. In Sta
melting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and thengine, 33,600 pounds. The Garry Owen was the first iron vessel with water-tight bulkheads; suggested by C. W. Williams. See bulkhead. Iron vessels for America, Ireland, France, India, and China were built in Scotland and on the Mersey, 1833-39. The iron steam-vessels Nemesis and Phlegethon were used in the villainous Opium War of 1842. They were not the last vessels built on the Clyde for piratical expeditions. The Ironsides was the first iron sailing vessel of any magnitude empl
se. See under those heads. Leath′er—em-boss′ing ma-chine′. A press or roller having an engraved pattern or one otherwise procured by casting or electro-plating, and which is impressed upon leather in a damp state. Schroth's English patent, 1839, describes dies of type-metal or a fusible alloy containing bismuth; the leather is beaten soft in water, wrung, pressed, rolled, and fulled, until it becomes quite supple. It is then laid on the die and driven in by a bone tool or by a press. I which occurs in the staving of the boat. The most important part of the construction consists in the longitudinal corrugations formed in the sheet-metal, by which the strength and stiffness are very much increased. Francis, in his patent of 1839, describes metallic tubes laid longitudinally in the bottom of the boat, and divided by transverse partitions, which were connected by metallic bands or braces running crosswise of the boat, and which served as floats. Over these the flooring wa
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