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Vicksburg proves impregnable Chickasaw Bayou. Here rested Sherman's extreme left, December 28, 1862, after a day's advance over bottom-lands of extreme difficulty. From this point, after sharp skirmishing which discomforted the advancing Federals, at nightfall the Confederates retired to their works on the bluff beyond, confident of being able to repel the assault that was to come. That confidence was not misplaced. Sherman had miscalculated in two particulars — chiefly in supposing that Grant was close at hand to support him. Furthermore, he did not know that his movements had been daily reported and that Johnston and Pemberton were fully aware of his strength. On the very day that Sherman landed on the Yazoo, Pemberton arrived in Vicksburg with reinforcements, bringing the garrison up to twelve thousand, while Sherman supposed that he was to contend with but half that number. Fully prepared for uncompromising defense, the Confederates were bound to win.

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