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[4] kinds—those which are intended to be permanent, built and equipped for their special purpose and intended to concentrate work on a large scale—and those of a more temporary character, capable of yielding results in the shortest time, and intended to meet the immediate demands of the war with such resources as the country then afforded. The first of the permanent works undertaken was a first class powder mill, the erection and equipment of which were placed in charge of Col. G. W. Rains, of North Carolina, who had been an officer of the U. S. regular army, and was a most accomplished and energetic man. The site selected was a large piece of land on the line of the canal at Augusta, Ga., where work was begun in September, 1861. All of the massive machinery was constructed in the Confederate States, the largest parts, the heavy incorporating rollers and pans, being made at the Tredegar Works at Richmond. Powder began to be produced in April, 1862, and the works continued in successful operation up to the end of the war, furnishing all the gunpowder needed, and of the very best quality. The statement may seem startling in view of the difficulties under which this establishment was built up, but it is no exageration to say that it was amongst the finest and most efficient powder mills in the world at the time, if not the very best in existence. The erection of a central ordnance laboratory for the production of artillery and small arms ammunition and the innumerable minor articles of ordnance equipment was decided upon in September, 1862, and placed in my charge, and work was begun a few weeks later. A tract of about 145 acres was purchased near Macon, Ga., and enclosed, a branch track was run out from the Macon and Western R. R., and the erection bf buildings begun. The line of the three main buildings, connected with each other, had a frontage of about 1200 feet, the middle building being about 600 feet long. The design which I prepared for the establishment, and which was approved by Col. Gorgas, included about 40 other detached buildings. The main buildings were practically complete at the close of the war, and some of the smaller ones has been begun. All of the brick was made at a yard which I opened at another point near Macon. Orders were sent to England for a large and various assortment

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