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[1021b] [1] Things, then, which are called relative of their own nature are so called, some in these senses, and others because the classes which contain them are of this kind. E.g., medicine is reckoned as relative because its genus, science, is thought to be a relative thing.Further, there are the properties in virtue of which the things which possess them are called relative; e.g., "equality" is relative because "the equal" is relative, and "similarity" because "the similar" is relative. Other things are accidentally relative; e.g., a man is relative because he happens to be "double" something else, and "double" is a relative term; or "white" is relative if the same thing happens to be white as well as double.

"Perfect" <or "complete"> means: (a) That outside which it is impossible to find even a single one of its parts; e.g., the complete time of each thing is that outside which it is impossible to find any time which is a part of it. (b) That which, in respect of goodness or excellence, cannot be surpassed in its kind; e.g., a doctor and a musician are "perfect" when they have no deficiency in respect of the form of their peculiar excellence.And thus by an extension of the meaning we use the term in a bad connection, and speak of a "perfect" humbug and a "perfect" thief; since indeed we call them "good"— [20] e.g. a "good" thief and a "good" humbug.(c) And goodness is a kind of perfection. For each thing, and every substance, is perfect when, and only when, in respect of the form of its peculiar excellence, it lacks no particle of its natural magnitude. (d) Things which have attained their end, if their end is good, are called "perfect"; for they are perfect in virtue of having attained the end.Hence, since the end is an ultimate thing, we extend the meaning of the term to bad senses, and speak of perishing "perfectly" or being "perfectly" destroyed, when the destruction or calamity falls short in no respect but reaches its extremity. Hence, by an extension of the meaning, death is called an "end," because they are both ultimate things. And the ultimate object of action is also an end.

Things, then, which are called "perfect" in themselves are so called in all these senses; either because in respect of excellence they have no deficiency and cannot be surpassed, and because no part of them can be found outside them; or because, in general, they are unsurpassed in each particular class, and have no part outside.

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