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Final operations of Sherman's Army.1

by H. W. Slocum, Major-General, U. S. V.
From Bentonville [March 22d, 1865] we marched to Goldsboro‘, and in two or three days were in camp, busily engaged in preparing for another campaign. We had made the march from Savannah to Goldsboro‘, a distance of 430 miles, in seven weeks. We had constructed bridges across the Edisto, Broad, Catawba, Pedee, and Cape Fear rivers, and had destroyed all the railroads to the interior of South Carolina. We had subsisted mainly upon the country, and our men and animals were in better condition than when we left Savannah. All this was done in the winter season.

We found Goldsboro' already occupied by our troops, the Twenty-third Corps, under General Schofield, and the Tenth Corps, under General Terry, having captured Wilmington and arrived at Goldsboro' a day or two in advance of us.2 The railroad to New Berne was soon put in running order, and supplies of all kinds were pouring in upon us. Soon after we were settled in the vicinity of Goldsboro' General Sherman went to City Point, where he met President Lincoln and Lieutenant-General Grant, and the situation of affairs was discussed by them while on board the River Queen, a small steamer lying near the wharf at City Point. Both Grant and Sherman expressed to Mr. Lincoln their firm conviction that the end was near at hand. During the conversation something was said about the disposition to be made of the rebel leaders, particularly Mr. Davis. Sherman made no secret of the fact that he wished to have Davis escape arrest, get out of the country, and thus save our Government all embarrassment as to his case. Mr. Lincoln said that, occupying the position he did, he could not say that he hoped the leader of the great rebellion, which had brought so much misery upon the land, would escape, but that the situation reminded him of an anecdote. He said a man who had recently taken the temperance pledge was once invited to take a drink of spirits. He said, “No, I can't do it; I will take a glass of lemonade.” When the lemonade was prepared, his friend suggested that its flavor would be improved by pouring in a little brandy. The man said, “If you could pour in a little of that stuff unbeknownst to me, I shouldn't get mad about it.” If Mr. Davis had escaped from the country “unbeknownst” to Mr. Lincoln, he would not have grieved over it.

General Sherman soon returned, bringing with him an order constituting the left wing a distinct army under the title of the Army of Georgia, and assigning me to command.3 The Tenth and Twenty-third corps had already been constituted an army known as the Army of the Ohio, with Schofield as commander.

On April 5th General Sherman issued a confidential order to the army and corps commanders and the chiefs of the staff departments. It stated that the next grand objective was to place his armies north of the Roanoke River, facing west, and in full communication with the Army of the Potomac. Everything was to be in readiness on April 10th, and the movement was to commence on the morning of the 11th. The Army of Georgia was to have the left, the Army of the Ohio the center, and the Army of the Tennessee the right in the movement. The roads to be taken by each command were indicated in the order. We went to bed that night happy in the belief that we were soon to be [755] in front of Richmond, with our right connecting with the Army of the Potomac, and after having marched through the entire South from Chattanooga, via Atlanta, Savannah, and Columbia, we were to have the honor of taking part in the capture of Lee's army and the capital of the Confederacy. The next day brought us news which dispelled this happy vision. Richmond had fallen, and Lee's army was marching to make a junction with Johnston. The news was received with great joy by the men of Sherman's army. Bonfires, rockets, and a general jubilee kept the inhabitants of Goldsboro' from sleep that night. This event, however, caused Sherman to change his plans. He decided to move direct to Raleigh, hoping to meet Johnston either there or at Smithfield. We commenced our march on the 10th, arrived at Smithfield on the 11th, only to find that General Johnston had retreated to Raleigh. On the 12th, while on the march to Raleigh, some person on horseback came riding up the road crying to the men as he passed, “Grant has captured Lee's army!” Soon after, Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 54, dated Smithfield, North Carolina, April 12th, 1865, was brought to me and published to the troops. It read as follows:

The general commanding announces to the army that he has official notice from General Grant that General Lee surrendered to him his entire army, on the 9th inst., at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Glory to God and to our country, and all honor to our comrades in arms, toward whom we are marching! A little more labor, a little more toil on our part, and the great race is won, and our Government stands regenerated, after four long years of bloody war.

W. T. Sherman, Major-General Commanding.

It is useless to attempt to describe the effect of this news upon the men of Sherman's army. Instead of looking forward to another long, campaign through the South in pursuit of the united armies of Lee and Johnston, the vision of every man now turned homeward. Thoughts of meeting wives, children, and friends from whom they had been so long separated by the bloody struggle, occupied the minds of all. A happier body of men never before surrounded their camp-fires than were to be found along the roads leading to Raleigh.

On the 13th we passed through Raleigh and encamped within three or four miles of the city. Kilpatrick's cavalry followed the retreating enemy about twenty-five miles beyond Raleigh and went into camp at Durham Station, on the road toward Hillsboro‘. On the 14th Sherman ordered his army to move, with a view of preventing the retreat of Johnston in the direction of Salisbury and Charlotte. In this order, he said that in the hope of an early reconciliation no further destruction of railroads or private property would be permitted. We were authorized to take from the people forage and other necessary supplies, but were cautioned against stripping the poorer classes. On the morning of the day that this movement was to commence, General Sherman received from General Johnston a message requesting a cessation of hostilities with a view of negotiating terms of surrender. Sherman sent a reply at once, and arrangements were made for a personal interview on the 17th between the two commanders, at a point midway between our advance and the position held by the enemy.

As Sherman was entering a car on the morning of the 17th to attend this meeting, the telegraph operator stopped him and requested him to wait a few minutes, as he was just receiving an important dispatch, which he ought to see before he left. The dispatch was from Mr. Stanton announcing the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, and the attempt on the life of Mr. Seward and his son.4 General Sherman asked the operator if he had divulged the contents of the dispatch to any one, and being answered in the negative, he ordered him to keep it a secret until his return. Sherman and his staff met Johnston and Wade Hampton with a number of staff-officers at the house of Mrs. Bennett. None of the Confederate officers had heard of the assassination of Lincoln, and Sherman first made the fact known to them. They were much affected by the news, and apparently regretted it as much as did our own officers. In conversing as to the terms of surrender, Johnston suggested that they should be such as to embrace not only his army, but the armies under Dick Taylor and Kirby Smith in the Gulf States, and those under Maury, Forrest, and others. Sherman questioned Johnston's authority to negotiate the surrender of the other armies, and Johnston assured him that he could soon obtain the authority. A meeting was arranged for the following day.

Sherman returned to Raleigh and issued an order announcing the assassination of President Lincoln, which was published to the troops on the following morning. The men appreciated the generosity and nobleness of Mr. Lincoln's nature. The fact that he had carried us successfully through the great struggle caused them to feel toward him an attachment which the soldier always feels toward a great and successful leader. The startling [756] news of his death was received with gloom and sadness.

On the following day General Sherman met General Johnston and negotiated with him a conditional treaty for the surrender of all the Confederates then under arms.5 The condition was that it should first be approved by the President. Pending these negotiations, and after the proposed terms had been made known to the leading officers of Sherman's army, I conversed with nearly all these officers, among them Logan, Howard, and Blair, and heard no word of dissent from any of them. I can now recall to mind but one general officer who, at the time, questioned the wisdom of General Sherman's action, and that was General Carl Schurz. General Schurz was then serving temporarily as my chief-of-staff, and when I returned from Sherman's headquarters about 12. o'clock on the night of the 18th I found General Schurz sitting up, waiting for me. He was eager to learn the terms, and when I stated them to him he expressed regret and predicted just what subsequently happened. He said the public mind of the North would be inflamed by the assassination of Lincoln, and now that the armies of the Confederacy were virtually crushed, anything looking toward leniency would not be well received. The terms were not approved by President Johnson, and General Grant came to Raleigh.6

His meeting with Sherman was a friendly one. He laid before Sherman a letter of instructions which he had received from Mr. Lincoln some time before the fall of Richmond, prohibiting him from. embracing, in any negotiations he might have with General Lee, anything of a political nature. Had a copy of this letter been furnished General Sherman, his treaty with Johnston would not have been made. Sherman and all his officers were exceedingly anxious to prevent the Confederate armies from breaking up into guerrilla bands and roaming through the South, keeping the country in a disturbed condition for months, and perhaps for years. There never was the slightest justification for the criticisms that were showered upon him [757] for his course in this matter. On the 2 6th of April General Johnston surrendered his army upon the same terms that General Lee had received.8

During our stay in Raleigh I witnessed a scene which to me was one of the most impressive of the war. It was the review by General Sherman of a division of colored troops. These troops passed through the principal streets of the city. They were well drilled, dressed in new and handsome uniforms, and with their bright bayonets gleaming in the sun they made a splendid appearance. The sides of the streets were lined with residents of the city and the surrounding country,--many of them, I presume, the former owners of some of these soldiers.

Soon after the surrender, orders were issued for the right and left wings to march to Washington via Richmond. On the evening before we left Raleigh the mails from the North arrived, and with them a large number of New York papers. On the following day, when we were about five miles from the city, my attention was called to a group of soldiers standing around a cart under which they had built a fire. The cart and its contents were being burned, while a young man in citizen's dress, with the mule that had been taken from the cart, was looking on. I sent a staff-officer to learn the meaning of it. He soon returned to me and said that a soldier, who seemed to be the leader of the party, said, “Tell General Slocum that cart is loaded with New York papers for sale to the soldiers. These papers are filled with the vilest abuse of General Sherman. We have followed Sherman through a score of battles and through nearly two thousand miles of the enemy's country, and we do not intend to allow these vile slanders against him to be circulated among his men.” This was the last property that I saw destroyed by the men of Sherman's army, and I witnessed the scene with keener satisfaction than I had felt over the destruction of any property since the day we left Atlanta.

A march of three or four days brought us in sight of Richmond. There were men in the Twentieth Corps who had been near enough to that city, on a former occasion, to enable them to see the spires of her churches. Some had been in the first Bull Run, many more in the Seven Days battles about Richmond, nearly all of them had been at Chancellorsville, Antietam, and Gettysburg. After the repulse at Chickamauga they had been detached from the Army of the Potomac and sent by rail with all possible speed to Nashville. Thence they had marched via Chattanooga, Atlanta, Savannah, Columbia, and Raleigh to the point which, during the first two years of the war, they had struggled so hard to reach by approaching it from the north side. They had swung around the circle,--the largest circle ever swung around by an army corps.

After resting a few days near Richmond we [758] started for Washington over the battle-scarred route so familiar to the men who had fought under McDowell, McClellan, and subsequently under Grant, as well as to those who had served under Lee. The weather was pleasant and the march full of interest. On some of the fields where great battles had been fought we found the bodies of many Union soldiers lying unburied, apparently just as they had fallen on the field. Parties were detailed to bury the dead, and subsequently a party was sent from Washington to complete the work.

We went into camp in the vicinity of Alexandria, my own headquarters being very near the place I had occupied during the first winter of the war, when McClellan was organizing the Army of the Potomac. We were soon informed that the final scene of the war was to be a grand review of all the troops by the President and his Cabinet. All the foreign ministers resident in Washington, the governors of the States, and many other distinguished people had been invited to be present. The Eastern troops were to be reviewed on the 23d of May, and the Western on the day following. The leading officers of Sherman's command were invited to the stand to witness the review of the Army of the Potomac, and they gladly accepted the invitation. After the close of the review of that army, several of our officers assembled at Sherman's headquarters to discuss matters and prepare for the work to be done next day. In speaking of the review of the Army of the Potomac Sherman said: “It was magnificent. In dress, in soldierly appearance, in precision of alignment and marching we cannot beat those fellows.” All present assented to this statement. Some one then suggested that we should not make the attempt, but should pass in review “as we went marching through Georgia” ; that the foragers, familiarly known among us as “bummers,” should form part of the column. This suggestion seemed to strike General Sherman favorably, and instructions were issued to carry it into effect. Early on the following morning the head of our column started up Pennsylvania Avenue and soon passed the reviewing stand, which was filled with distinguished people from all parts of the country. Sherman's men certainly presented a very soldierly appearance. They were proud of their achievements, and had the swing of men who had marched through half a dozen States. But the feature of the column which seemed to interest the spectators most was the attachments of foragers in rear of each brigade. At the review the men appeared “in their native ugliness” as they appeared on the march through Georgia and the Carolinas. Their pack-mules and horses, with rope bridles or halters, laden with supplies such as they had carried on the march, formed part of the column. It was a new feature in a grand review, but one which those who witnessed it will never forget.

Soon after the review the troops were ordered into various camps, where the paymaster paid them his last visit, and then they separated, never again to meet in large bodies, except on Memorial Day, the 30th of May, of each year,9 when they meet to honor the memory of comrades who gave their lives for their country, and at annual reunions of regimental associations, when they assemble to renew the ties of comradeship10 formed during the struggle of more than four years duration, which cost us hundreds of thousands of lives and thousands of millions of treasure, but which has conferred, even upon the defeated South, blessings that more than compensate the country for all her losses.

Grand reviewing stand in front of the White House, Washington, May 23-24, 1865. from a photograph.


Opposing forces in Wilson's raid, March 22d-April 20th, 1865.

the Union forces. Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi.--Brevet Maj.-Gen. James H. Wilson.

Escort: 4th U. S., Lieut. William O'Connell.

first division, Brig.-Gen. Edward M. McCook; (after April 20th) Brig.-Gen. John T. Croxton.

First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. John T. Croxton: 8th Iowa, Col. Joseph B. Dorr; 4th Ky. (Mounted Inf'y), Col. Robert M. Kelly; 6th Ky., Maj. William H. Fidler; 2d Mich., Lieut.-Col. Thomas W. Johnston. Second Brigade, Col. Oscar H. La Grange: 2d Ind. (battalion), Capt. Roswell S. Hill (w), Capt. Joseph B. Williams; 4th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Horace P. Lamson; 4th Ky., Col. Wickliffe Cooper; 7th Ky., Lieut.-Col. William W. Bradley (w), Maj. Andrew S. Bloom; 1st Wis., Lieut.-Col. Henry Harnden (w). Artillery: 18th Ind. Battery, Capt. Moses M. Beck.

Second division, Brig.-Gen. Eli Long (w), Col. Robert H. G. Minty.

First Brigade (mounted infantry), Col. Abram O. Miller (w), Col. Jacob G. Vail: 98th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Edward Kitchell; 123d Ill., Lieut.-Col. Jonathan Biggs (w), Capt. Owen Wiley; 17th Ind., Col. Jacob G. Vail, Lieut.-Col. Frank White; 72d Ind., Lieut.-Col. Chester G. Thomson. Second Brigade, Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Lieut.-Col. Horace N. Howland: 4th Mich., Lieut.-Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard; 3d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Horace N. Howland, Maj. Darius E. Livermore; 4th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. George W. Dobb (k), Capt. William W. Shoemaker; 7th Pa., Col. Charles C. McCormick (w), Lieut.-Col. James F. Andress. Artillery: Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Capt. George I. Robinson.

Fourth division, Brig.-Gen. Emory Upton; (after April 20th) Brevet Brig.-Gen. Edward F. Winslow.

First Brigade, Col. Edward F. Winslow: 3d Iowa, Col. John W. Noble; 4th Iowa, Lieut.-Col. John H. Peters; 10th Mo., Lieut.-Col. Frederick W. Ben teen. Second Brigade, Brevet Brig.-Gen. A. J. Alexander: 5th Iowa, Col. J. Morris Young; 1st Ohio, Col. Beroth B. Eggleston; 7th Ohio, Col. Israel Garrard. Artillery: I, 1st U. S., Lieut. George B. Rodney. The effective strength of the foregoing commands was about 13,000. The loss in action aggregated 99 killed, 598 wounded, and 28 missing=725.

the Confederate forces. Cavalry Corps, Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.--Lieut.-Gen. N. B. Forrest.

Chalmers's division, Brig.-Gen. James R. Chalmers. (Composed of the brigades of Brig.-Gens. Frank C. Armstrong, Wirt Adams, and Peter B. Starke.)

Jackson's division, Brig.-Gen. William H. Jackson. (Composed of the brigades of Brig.-Gens. Tyree H. Bell and Alexander W. Campbell.)

Roddey's Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Philip D. Roddey.

Crossland's Brigade, Col. Ed. Crossland.

There were also some militia and other forces under Major-Generals Howell Cobb and G. W. Smith, and Brigadier-Generals Felix H. Robertson, Daniel W. Adams, and R. C. Tyler and others.

1 see page 681 to page 705.--editors.

2 After the fall of Wilmington, Feb. 22d, 1865, General Schofield sent a column, under General J. D. Cox, to open the railway from New Berne to Goldsboro‘. At Kinston (see map, p. 694) Cox encountered, March 8th, Bragg with Hoke's division and a portion of Hood's troops, under D. H. Hill. Fighting took place on the south side of the Neuse, March 8th to 10th. On the night of the 10th Bragg retreated toward Goldsboro‘, leaving a detachment at Kinston. Schofield occupied Kinston on the 14th, and reached Goldsboro' on the 21st.--editors.

3 On April 1st, 1865, General Sherman announced the organization of his army to be as follows: Right Wing (Army of the Tennessee), Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard, commanding. Left Wing (Army of Georgia), Maj.-Gen. H. W. Slocum, commanding. Center (Army of the Ohio), Maj.-Gen. J. M. Schofield, commanding. Cavalry, Brevet Maj.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, commanding. Each of these commanders was authorized to exercise the powers prescribed by law for a general commanding a separate department or army in the field.--editors.

4 On Sunday, April 9th, President Lincoln reached Washington on his return from his visit to the field of operations on the James, having left Richmond on the 6th. (See p. 727.) On the night of Friday, the 14th, the President visited Ford's Theatre, where he was shot by John Wilkes Booth. The next morning about 7 o'clock Mr. Lincoln died. Booth escaped from the city, and, guided by some confederates, crossed the Potomac near Port Tobacco, Maryland, to Mathias Point, Virginia (see map, p. 84), on Saturday night, April 22d. On Monday, the 24th, he crossed the Rappahannock from Port Conway to Port Royal and took refuge in a barn, where he was found on Wednesday, the 26th, by a detachment of Company L, 16th New York Cavalry, and killed. The assassination of the President was the result of a conspiracy. Mr. Seward, the Secretary of State, was also attacked on the evening of April 14th by Lewis Payne, a fellow-conspirator, and was severely injured. The following persons were tried before a military commission convened at Washington, May 9th, 1865, on the charge of conspiracy to assassinate the President and other high officers of the Government: David E. Herold, G. A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, Michael O'Laughlin, Edward Spangler, Samuel Arnold, Mary E. Surratt, and Doctor Samuel A. Mudd. Herold, Atzerodt, Payne, and Mrs. Surratt were hanged; O'Laughlin, Arnold, and Mudd were imprisoned for life, and Spangler was imprisoned for six years.--editors.

5 Following is the text of the conditional treaty of April 18th:

Memorandum, or Basis of Agreement, made this 18th day of April, A. D. 1865, near Durham's Station, in the State of North Carolina, by and between General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding the Confederate Army, and Major-General William T. Sherman, commanding the Army of the United States in North Carolina, both present:

1. The contending armies now in the field to maintain the status quo until notice is given by the commanding general of any one to its opponent, and reasonable time — say forty-eight hours--allowed.

2. The Confederate armies now in existence to be disbanded and conducted to their several State capitals, there to deposit their arms and public property in the State arsenal; and each officer and man to execute and file an agreement to cease from acts of war, and to abide the action of the State and Federal authority. The number of arms and munitions of war to be reported to the Chief of Ordnance at Washington City, subject to the future action of the Congress of the United States, and, in the meantime, to be used solely to maintain peace and order within the borders of the States respectively.

3. The recognition by the Executive of the United States of the several State governments on their officers and legislatures taking the oaths prescribed by the Constitution of the United States, and where conflicting State governments have resulted from the war tile legitimacy of all shall be submitted to the Supreme Court of the United States.

4. The reestablishment of all the Federal courts in the several States, with powers as defined by tile Constitution of the United States and of the States respectively.

5. The people and inhabitants of all the States to be guaranteed, so far as the Executive can, their political rights and franchises, as well as their rights of person and property, as defined by the Constitution of the United States and of the States respectively.

6. The Executive authority of the Government of the United States not to disturb any of the people by reason of the late war, so long as they live in peace and quiet, abstain from acts of armed hostility, and obey the laws in existence at the place of their residence.

7. In general terms-tile war to cease; a general amnesty, so far as the Executive of the United States can command, on condition of the disbandment of the Confederate armies, the distribution of the arms, and the resumption of peaceful pursuits by the officers and men hitherto composing said armies. Not being fully empowered by our respective principals to fulfill these terms, we individually and officially pledge ourselves to promptly obtain the necessary authority, and to carry out the above programme.

W. T. Sherman, Major-General, Commanding Army of the United States in North Carolina. J. E. Johnston, General, Commanding Confederate States Army in North Carolina.

6 A copy of the memorandum of the 18th was sent to General Grant on the 20th. On the 24th Grant reached Sherman's headquarters, bringing the announcement of the Secretary of War that the negotiations were disapproved by President Johnson. Grant's own reply to Sherman was delivered at the same time as follows: headquarters, armies of the United States, Washington, D. C., April 21, 1865. Major-General W. T. Sherman, commanding Military Division of the Mississippi. General: The basis of agreement entered into between yourself and General J. E. Johnston, for the disbandment of the Southern army, and the extension of the authority of the General Government over all the territory belonging to it, sent for the approval of the President, is received. I read it carefully myself before submitting it to the President and Secretary of War, and felt satisfied that it could not possibly be approved My reason for these views I will give you at another time, in a more extended letter.

Your agreement touches upon questions of such vital importance that, as soon as read, I addressed a note to the Secretary of War, notifying him of their receipt, and the importance of immediate action by the President; and suggested, in view of their importance, that the entire Cabinet be called together, that all might give an expression of their opinions upon the matter. The result was a disapproval by the President of the basis laid down; a disapproval of the negotiations altogether — except for the surrender of the army commanded by General Johnston, and directions to me to notify you of this decision. I cannot do so better than by sending you the inclosed copy of a dispatch (penned by the late President, though signed by the Secretary of War6 in answer to me, on sending a letter received from General Lee, proposing to meet me for the purpose of submitting the question of peace to a convention of officers. Please notify General Johnston, immediately on receipt of this, of the termination of the truce, and resume hostilities against his army at the earliest moment you can, acting in good faith. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General.

7 On the 2d of March, 1865, General R. E. Lee addressed a letter to General Grant suggesting a meeting between them to arrange “to submit the subjects of controversy between the belligerents to a convention,” etc. General Lee's letter was forwarded to the Secretary of War, and on tile 4th of March the following was received in reply: “[Cipher.] Office United States Military telegraph, headquarters armies of the United States. Lieutenant-General Grant: The President directs me to say to you that he wishes you to have no conference with General Lee, unless it be for the capitulation of Lee's army or on solely minor and purely military matters. He instructs me to say that you are not to decide, discuss, or confer upon any political question; such questions the President holds in his own hands, and will submit them to no military conferences or conventions. Meantime you are to press to the utmost your military advantages. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.”--editors.

8 General Grant advised General Sherman to accept Johnston's surrender on the same terms as those made with Lee. The meeting of Johnston and Sherman took place on the 26th, and the following was agreed upon and approved by General Grant:

Terms of a Military Convention, entered into this 26th day of April, 1865, at Bennett's House, near Durham's Station, North Carolina, between General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding the Confederate Army, and Major-General W. T. Sherman, commanding the United States Army in North Carolina:

1. All acts of war on the part of the troops under General Johnston's command to cease from this date.

2. All arms and public property to be deposited at Greensboro‘, and delivered to an ordnance officer of the United States Army.

3. Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate; one copy to be retained by the commander of the troops, and the other to be given to officer to be designated by General Sherman. Each officer and man to give his individual obligation in writing not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly released from this obligation.

4. The side-arms of officers, and their private horses and baggage, to be retained by them.

5. This being done, all the officers and men will be permitted to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by the United States authorities, so long as they observe their obligation and the laws in force where they may reside.

W. T. Sherman, Major-General, Commanding United States Forces in North Carolina. J. E. Johnston, General, Commanding Confederate Forces in North Carolina. Approved: U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General.

Supplemental terms.

1. The field transportation to be loaned to the troops for their march to their homes, and for subsequent use in their industrial pursuits. Artillery horses may be used in field transportation if necessary.

2. Each brigade or separate body to retain a number of arms equal to one-seventh of its effective strength, which, when the troops reach the capitals of their States, will be disposed of as the general commanding the department may direct.

3. Private horses, and other private property of both officers and men, to be retained by them.

4. The commanding general of the Military Division of West Mississippi, Major-General Canby, will be requested to give transportation by water from Mobile or New Orleans to the troops from Arkansas and Texas.

5. The obligations of officers and soldiers to be signed by their immediate commanders.

6. Naval forces within the limits of General Johnston's command to be included in the terms of this convention.

J. M. Schofield, Major-General, Commanding United States Forces in North Carolina. J. E. Johnston, General, Commanding Confederate Forces in North Carolina.

On leaving his army, General Johnston issued the following farewell order:

Comrades: In terminating our official relations, I earnestly exhort you to observe faithfully the terms of pacification agreed upon, and to discharge the obligations of good and peaceful citizens as well as you have performed the duties of thorough soldiers in the field. By such a course you will best secure the comfort of your families and kindred, and restore tranquillity to our country.

You will return to your homes with the admiration of our people, won by the courage and noble devotion you have displayed in this long war. I shall always remember with pride the loyal support and generous confidence you have given me.

I now part with you with deep regret, and bid you farewell with feelings of cordial friendship, and with earnest wishes that you may have hereafter all the prosperity and happiness to be found in the world.

Official. J. E. Johnston, General. Kinloch Falconer, A. A.-G.

9 Confederate Memorial Services are usually held at different dates in April and May. In some localities veterans of both sides participate in all memorial ceremonies. Of late years reunions of Union and Confederate veterans on battle-fields have become frequent.--editors.

10 The Grand Army of the Republic, dating from 1866, numbering in 1888 over 350,000 members, is the largest veteran association in the country. Its membership is restricted to soldiers and sailors of the Union army and navy, who served during the Civil War, whether honorably discharged or still in service. The Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, numbering in 1888 about 6000 members (commissioned officers of the Union army and navy), was organized in 1865 to perpetuate the memories of the war. There are also numerous Union veteran associations, either fraternal or provident, or both; among them a national body of Naval Veterans, the societies of the Army of the Potomac, the Army of the Cumberland, the Army of the Tennessee, the Army of the Ohio, and societies of the several army corps, forming parts of the societies of the main armies.--editors.

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Edisto (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Edgefield (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Durham (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Columbia, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Columbia (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Childsburg (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Chicago (Illinois, United States) (1)
Charlotte (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Chancellorsville (Virginia, United States) (1)
Catawba River (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Cape Fear (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Broad River (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Bentonville (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Arkansas (Arkansas, United States) (1)
Alabama (Alabama, United States) (1)

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