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But while there is much to praise, the prominence of the distinguished author makes it all the more necessary to point out some of the errors he has made. We may allude, in passing to the fondness General Doubleday has for the term “Rebel” instead of “Confederate,” a small matter, but showing a tendency of mind not exactly historical. But there are graver matters, for instance, on page 37, in describing the gallant charge of Major Kernan, of the Eighth Pennsylvania cavalry, at Hazel Grove, he says: “At 34 years of age, literally impaled on the bayonets of the enemy, he laid down his life and saved the army from capture and his country from the unutterable degradation of the establishment of slavery in the Northern States.” The idea contained in the close of this sentence is repeated elsewhere in the book. Now, it may be permitted to a brave man like General Doubleday to become enthusiastic over the gallant charge of a handful of cavalry, even to the extent of greatly exaggerating the results of their devotion, but he has no right to say that the issue fought over was the “establishment of slavery in the Northern States.” The Southern States never aimed at anything of the kind; they fought for independence, and no more desired or expected, in the event of success, to extend their institutions over the North than did the American colonies, at the close of the Revolution, desire or expect to turn the Mother country into a Federal Republic.

Again, General Doubleday shows a conspicuous inability to deal fairly with the question of numbers. This is manifested frequently in his book, but we will content ourselves with examining one of the most notable instances, his enumeration of the forces at Gettysburg, on page 123. He says:

The two armies * * * were in numbers as follows according to the estimate made by the Count of Paris, who is an impartial observer, and who has made a close study of the question.

The Army of the Potomac, under General Meade, 82,000 men and 300 guns.

The Army of Northern Virginia, under General Lee, 73,500 men and 190 guns.

Stuart had 11,100 cavalry and 16 guns.

Pleasanton had about the same number of cavalry and 27 guns.

The Count of Paris is hardly entitled to the character of an “impartial observer.” He is frequently one-sided, and in his earlier volumes, especially, seems to have troubled himself but little about information that did not proceed from the side on which he fought. But letting this pass, it seems hardly possible, and yet it is a fact, that General Doubleday has seriously misstated the Count, and in favor of his own

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