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[204] vigorously at Frazier's farm, and defeated and put to flight the greater part of McCall's division, capturing its commander and inflicting severe losses on the troops brought up in support. At night-fall the Confederates had pressed nearly to the Quaker road, on which the Federals were retreating, and had taken many prisoners and ten guns. Longstreet was unsupported, however, and the Federals were able to hold on to their line of retreat until dark, when they fell back to Malvern Hill. This was the day big with fate to McClellan. Had Jackson and Huger co-operated with Longstreet in his assault, the result can hardly be doubted; the greater part of the Federal army must have been overwhelmed. Huger, though nearest Longstreet, did nothing, and some of the Federal troops in his front were actually sent against the latter. This failure was one of the greatest blunders of the Confederate campaign. Jackson was held back by a very serious obstacle, backed by a strong and well commanded force, sufficient, perhaps, to account in an ordinary case for his failure to unite in the attack, but it is hard to avoid the belief that had he exhibited on this occasion the wonderful skill and audacity that characterized his Valley campaign, he would have crossed White Oak Swamp in spite of Franklin.

Next day, July 1st, the Confederates, once more reunited, followed the retreating army to Malvern Hill, where McClellan had selected an admirable position and massed on it all of his forces and his immense artillery. Here Lee again attacked, but after a sanguinary contest, in which the Federal lines were severely tested, he was repulsed. The attack on the part of the Confederates was badly managed. Some confusion about the roads in this intricate region caused Magruder to be late in reaching the field. Concert of action between the attacking columns was not secured; the assaults, especially on the right, where Magruder commanded, were partial and disjointed, and the result was that McClellan saved his army by inflicting a severe repulse upon his adversary. As soon as the battle was ended, McClellan abandoned the field and retreated to Harrison's Landing (or Westover), where he could be more completely protected by the fleet in the James river. The Confederates followed, but the check at Malvern made their pursuit slow, and when the army again closed up with the Federals the latter were found in possession of a strong position, commanded by the gunboats and defended by earthworks. The contest now ceased, and General Lee withdrew to the neighborhood of Richmond.

McClellan's losses were great. His loss in men was heavy, though not so large as that of the Confederates. His losses in material and supplies were far greater. They were simply immense; but his loss in

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