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[197] inflict a severe repulse on Early's brigade. But, on the whole, General Johnston, with a loss of over 1,500, inflicted a loss of over 2,200, and effectually checked the pursuit. McClellan sent a large force, headed by Franklin's division by water to the head of the York opposite West Point, with the purpose of there landing and seizing the Confederate line of retreat; but Johnston attacked the first troops that landed vigorously, drove them back to the cover of their gunboats, and penned them up there until his army trains had passed on towards the Chickahominy. Baffled thus in his movements against both the flank and rear of the retreating army, McClellan was content to follow slowly and with great caution. The retreat from Yorktown involved the evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates; and the destruction of the iron-clad Virginia quickly gave to the Federals the command of the James river up to Drewry's Bluff. This caused Johnston to retire across the Chickahominy and take position in front of Richmond; and on May 21 the Federal army advanced to the line of the Chickahominy.

So far boldness and skill in strategy had given the Confederates the advantage in the campaign, but the Federals were gathering from different directions in overwhelming force, and it was evident that a great battle, or battles, must soon be fought for the possession of Richmond. The disparity of numbers against the Confederates was alarming. And here it should be said that General Webb is inaccurate, and sometimes very unfair in his statement of numbers. Thus, using an expression of McClellan's which probably refers to the force he could place in line of battle in an aggressive movement, he states McClellan's strength in May as 80,000 (p. 84), while he makes no reference to the official reports. From the latter he elsewhere (p. 181) gives McClellan's numbers when he left Yorktown, as 109,335 “present for duty.” There is no fair and honest basis for estimates of strength but the official reports. All else is guess-work, and all cutting down of official numbers on special grounds is only fair when applied in the same way to both armies. Now, it is plain that McClellan had early in May 109,000 effectives. How many of these he could throw forward to fight, and how many must be kept guarding his flanks, his communications and his depots, is not the question. In answer to McClellan's urgent appeals, at the middle of May, McDowell was ordered forward from Fredericksburg with a force which General Webb correctly states at 41,000 men and 100 guns (p. 85). Thus, 150,000 men were about to unite in the attack on Richmond. To meet this, Johnston had, by the official report of May 21, 53,688 men at Richmond. He called in Branch's and Anderson's brigades from

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