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[229] and action between the contending governments on the line of the humane propositions mentioned. Unfortunately their policies in all that related to non-combatants, medical supplies, and exchange of prisoners, were diametrically opposed. The United States Government early declared by proclamation or order all medicines, surgical instruments and appliances contraband of war, and they were so regarded to the end of the struggle.

The ill temper and inhumanity of the time in the North extended even to the medical profession, as evidenced at the Convention of the American Medical Association held in Chicago in 1863, when Dr. Gardner, of New York, introduced preamble and resolutions petitioning the Northern government to repeal the orders declaring medical and surgical appliances contraband of war; arguing that such cruelty rebounded on their own soldiers, many of whom as prisoners in the hands of the Confederates, shared the suffering resulting from such a policy, while the act itself was worthy the dark ages of the world's history. It is lamentable to have to record that this learned and powerful Association of the medical men then limited to the North, forgetful of the noble and unselfish teachings of the healing art, in their senseless passion hissed their benevolent brother from the hall.

The Northern government also resisted all efforts to effect a satisfactory agreement regarding exchange of prisoners, only closing its eyes and pretending not to be aware of the informal agreements of opposing generals in the field as to the exchange of prisoners in their hands respectively, till July 22, 1862, when a general cartel was agreed upon by the two governments, but which was never carried out satisfactorily, and in 1864 was practically suspended altogether; so that even the great prisons became inadequate for the increased demands upon them. Had there been satisfactory agreement and good faith in carrying out the cartels Andersonville would not have been established, and there would have been avoided that distressing calamity; and the effort which grew out of it to blacken the character of President Davis; and the persecution of Major Henry Wirz, and his cruel execution by hanging. Justice has never been done that noble heroism which resisted and spurned the base and formidable bribe of life and liberty, and held fast to the truth. The Southern people should ever hold his memory dear. Nor would there have been Camp Douglas, Illinois; Camp Butler, Illinois; Alton, Illinois; Rock Island, Illinois; Camp Morton, Indiana; or Elmira, New York; with their frightful records of suffering and death.

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