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[17] tan hides, to press grapes, to boil soap, to shell and pot peas. In terror of San Carlos, some of these converts sold their extra squaws.

So things remained on the Carmelo for thirty years. Fed, clothed, and taught, the natives lodged beside the Mission-house; neither increasing much. nor mending fast; yet clinging to the soil, and shedding bit by bit their savage ways. The friars were tender towards Indian customs, especially in regard to land and squaws. Yet, doing their best, according to the field in which they worked, these fathers were content to rake and sow, and leave the vintage for a distant time.

At length two parties rose among the Whites, a clerical party and a secular party, who differed as to what was best for these poor bucks and squaws. The clerical party said the Indians were savages, and should be governed by pastors and masters, monks and priests. The secular party said the natives were members of a free commonwealth, and should be left to rule themselves. These parties came to blows, and after cutting each other's throats for several years, the secular party got the upper hand. The fathers were expelled, the converts

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