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[307] which the Franciscans tried in California. But the classification is too vague and weak for practical life, and is thrust aside by men who have to deal with living facts.

These practical men know two Indian classes only-

I. Wild Indians.

II. Half-wild Indians.

All the great families and tribes are wild: Sioux, Utes, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Navajos, and the like. These are the Red men who have never been subdued and fixed. Pagan, predatory, and nomadic, these Indians count about two hundred thousand souls; and are the true Red men, unmixed with alien blood, untouched by alien creeds.

The second class contains the smaller Indian families, who, from contact with White men, have been half-subdued and fixed: Mission Indians of California, Pueblo Indians of Arizona, Senecas in New York, Chippewas in Michigan, Winnebagoes in Nebraska, Choctaws, and Cherokees in Oklahoma, and their fellows everywhere. These Indians, mostly surrounded by White settlers, count about

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