The voyage of M. John Locke to Jerusalem.IN my voyage to Jerusalem, I imbarked my selfe the 26 of March 1553 in the good shippe called the Mathew Gonson, which was bound for Livorno , or Legorne and Candia . It fell out that we touched in the beginning of Aprill next ensuing at Cades in Andalozia, where the Spaniardes, according to their accustomed maner with all shippes of extraordinarie goodnes and burden, picked a quarrell against the company, meaning to have forfeited, or at the least to have arrested the said shippe. And they grew so malicious in their wrongfull purpose, that I being utterly out of hope of any speedie release, to the ende that my intention should not be overthrowen, was inforced to take this course following. Notwithstanding this hard beginning, it fell out so luckily, that I found in the roade a great shippe called the Cavalla of Venice, wherin after agreement made with the patron, I shipped my selfe the 24. of May in the said yere 1553, and the 25 by reason of the winde blowing hard and contrary, we were not able to enter the straits of Gibraltar , but were put to the coast of Barbarie, where we ankered in the maine sea 2. leagues from shore, and continued so untill two houres before sunne set, and then we weighed againe, and turned our course towards the Straits, where we entered the 26 day aforesayd, the winde being very calme, but the current of the straites very favourable. The same day the winde beganne to rise somewhat, and blew a furthering gale, and so continued at Northwest untill we arrived at Legorne the third of June. And from thence riding over land unto Venice , I prepared for my voyage to Jerusalem in the Pilgrimes shippe. I John Locke, accompanied with Maister Anthony Rastwold, with divers other, Hollanders, Zelanders, Almaines and French pilgrimes entered the good shippe called Fila Cavena of Venice, the 16 of July 1553. and the 17 in the morning we weighed our anker and sayled towardes the coast of Istria , to the port of Rovigno, and the said day there came aboard of our ship the Percevena of the shippe named Tamisari, for to receive the rest of all the pilgrimes money, which was in all after the rate of 55. Crownes for every man for that voyage, after the rate of five shillings starling to the crowne: This done, he returned to Venice . The 19 day we tooke fresh victuals aboard, and with the bote that brought the fresh provision we went on land to the Towne, and went to see the Church of Sancta Eufemia, where we sawe the bodie of the sayd Saint. The 20 day wee departed from Rovignio, and about noone we had sight of Monte de Ancona, and the hilles of Dalmatia , or else of Sclavonia both at one time, and by report they are 100. miles distant from ech other, and more. The 21 we sayled still in sight of Dalmatia , and a litle before noone, we had sight of a rocke in the midst of the sea, called in Italian, il Pomo, it appeareth a farre off to be in shape like a sugarloafe. Also we sawe another rocke about two miles compasse called Sant Andrea: on this rocke is onely one Monasterie of Friers: we sayled betweene them both, and left S. Andrea on the left hand of us, and we had also kenning of another Iland called Lissa , all on the left hande, these three Ilands lie East and West in the sea, and at sunne setting we had passed them. 11 pomo is distant from Sant Andrea 18 miles, and S. Andrea from Lissa 10 miles, and Lissa from another Iland called Lezina, which standeth betweene the maine of Dalmatia and Lissa , tenne miles. This Iland is inhabited, and hath great plentie of wine and frutes and hereagainst we were becalmed. The 22 we had sight of another small Iland called Catza, which is desolate and on the left hand, and on the right hand, a very dangerous Iland called Pelagosa, this is also desolate, and lyeth in the midst of the sea betweene both the maines: it is very dangerous and low land, and it hath a long ledge of rockes lying out sixe miles in to the sea, so that many ships by night are cast away upon them. There is betweene Catza and Pelagosa 30 miles, and these two Ilands are distant from Venice 400 miles. There is also about twelve miles eastward, a great Iland called Augusta , about 14 miles in length, somewhat hillie, but well inhabited, and fruitfull of vines, corne and other fruit, this also we left on the left hand: & we have hitherto kept our course from Rovignio East southeast. This Iland is under the Signiorie or governement of Ragusa , it is distant from Ragusa 50 miles, and there is by that Iland a greater, named Meleda, which is also under the governement of Ragusa , it is about 30 miles in length, and inhabited, and hath good portes, it lyeth by East from Augusta , and over against this Iland lyeth a hill called Monte S. Angelo, upon the coast of Puglia in Italy , and we had sight of both landes at one time. The 23 we sayled all the day long by the bowline alongst the coast of Ragusa , and towardes night we were within 7 or 8 miles of Ragusa , that we might see the white walles, but because it was night, we cast about to the sea, minding at the second watch, to beare it againe to Ragusa , for to know the newes of the Turkes armie, but the winde blew so hard and contrary, that we could not. This citie of Ragusa paieth tribute to the Turke yerely fourteene thousand Sechinos, and every Sechino is of venetian money eight livers and two soldes, besides other presents which they give to the Turkes Bassas when they come thither. The Venetians have a rocke or cragge within a mile of the said towne, for the which the Raguseos would give them much money, but they doe keepe it more for the namesake, then for profite. This rocke lieth on the Southside of the towne, and is called 11 cromo, there is nothing on it but onely a Monasterie called Sant Jeronimo. The maine of the Turkes countrie is bordering on it within one mile, for the which cause they are in great subjection. This night wee were put backe by contrarie windes, and ankered at Melleda. The 24 being at an anker under Melleda, we would have gone on land, but the winde came so faire that we presently set sayle and went our course, and left on the right hand of us the forenamed Iland, and on the left hand betweene us and the maine the Iland of Zupanna, and within a mile of that under the maine by East, another Iland called Isola de Mezo. This Iland hath two Monasteries in it, one called Santa Maria de Bizo, and the other Sant Nicholo. Also there is a third rocke with a Frierie called Sant Andrea: these Ilands are from the maine but two miles, and the channell betweene Melleda and Zupanna is but foure or five miles over by gesse, but very deepe, for we had at an anker fortie fathoms. The two Ilands of Zupanna and Mezo are well inhabited, and very faire buildings, but nothing plentie save wine onely. This night toward sunne set it waxed calme, and we sayled little or nothing. The 24 we were past Ragusa 14 miles, and there we mette with two Venetian ships, which came from Cyprus , we thought they would have spoken with us, for we were desirous to talke with them, to knowe the newes of the Turkes armie, and to have sent some letters by them to Venice . About noone, we had scant sight of Castel novo, which Castell a fewe yeeres past the Turke tooke from the Emperour, in which fight were slaine three hundred Spanish souldiers, besides the rest which were taken prisoners, and made gallie slaves. This Castell is hard at the mouth of a channell called Boca de Cataro. The Venetians have a hold within the channell called Cataro, this channell goeth up to Budoa, and further up into the countrey. About sunneset we were over against the hilles of Antiveri in Sclavonia, in the which hilles the Venetians have a towne called Antiveri, and the Turkes have another against it called Marchevetti, the which two townes continually skirmish together with much slaughter. At the end of these hils endeth the Countrey of Sclavonia, and Albania beginneth. These hilles are thirtie miles distant from Ragusa . The 27 we kept our course towards Puglia , and left Albania on the left hand. The 28. we had sight of both the maines, but we were neerer the coast of Puglia , for feare of Foystes. It is betweene Cape Chimera in Albania and Cape otranto in Puglia 60 miles. Puglia is a plaine low lande, and Chimera in Albania is very high land, so that it is scene the further. Thus sayling our course along the coast of Puglia , we saw diverse white Towers, which serve for sea-markes. About three of the clocke in the after noone, we had sight of a rocke called Il fano, 48 miles from Corfu , and by sunne set we discovered Corfu . Thus we kept on our course with a prosperous winde, and made our way after twelve mile every houre. Most part of this way we were accompanied with certaine fishes called in the Italian tongue Palomide, it is a fish three quarters of a yard in length, in colour, eating, and making like a Makarell, somewhat bigge and thick in body, and the tayle forked like a halfe moone, for the which cause it is said that the Turke will not suffer them to be taken in all his dominions. The 29 in the morning we were in sight of an Iland, which we left on our left hande called Cephalonia , it is under the Venetians and well inhabited, with a faire towne strongly situated on a hill, of the which hill the Iland beareth her name, it hath also a very strong fortresse or Castle, and plentie of corne and wine, their language is Greeke, it is distant from the maine of Morea , thirtie miles, it is in compasse 80 miles. One houre within night we sayled by the towne standing on the South cape of Cephalonia , whereby we might perceive their lights. There come oftentimes into the creekes and rivers, the Turkes foystes and gallies where at their arrivall, the Countrey people doe signifie unto their neighbours by so many lights, as there are foistes or gallies in the Iland, and thus they doe from one to another the whole Iland over. About three of the clocke in the afternoone the winde scanted, and wee minded to have gone to Zante , but we could not for that night. This Iland of Zante is distant from Cephalonia , 12 or 14 miles, but the towne of Cephalonia , from the towne of Zante , is distant fortie miles. This night we went but little forward. The 30 day we remained still turning up and downe because the winde was contrary, and towards night the winde mended, so that we entered the channell betweene Cephalonia , & Zante , the which chanell is about eight or tenne miles over, and these two beare East and by South, and West and by North from the other. The towne of Zante lieth within a point of the land, where we came to an anker, at nine of the clocke at night. The 31 about sixe of the clocke in the morning, I with five Hollanders went on land, and hosted at the house of Pedro de Venetia. After breakfast we went to see the towne, and passing along we went into some of the Greeke churches, wherein we sawe their Altares, Images, and other ornaments. This done, wee went to a Monas terie of Friers called Sancta Maria de la Croce, these are westerne Christians, for the Greekes have nothing to doe with them, nor they with the Greekes, for they differ very much in religion. There are but 2. Friers in this Friery. In this Monasterie we saw the tombe that M. T. Cicero, was buried in, with Terentia Antonia, his wife. This tombe was founde about sixe yeeres since, when the Monastery was built, there was in time past a streete where the tombe stoode. At the finding of the tombe there was also found a yard under ground, a square stone somewhat longer than broad, upon which stone was found a writing of two severall handes writing, the one as it seemed, for himselfe, and the other for his wife, and under the same stone was found a glasse somewhat proportioned like an urinall, but that it was eight square and very thicke, wherein were the ashes of the head and right arme of Mar. T. Cicero, for as stories make mention he was beheaded as I remember at Capua , for insurrection. And his wife having got his head and right arme, (which was brought to Rome to the Emperour） went from Rome, and came to Zante , and there buried his head and arme, and wrote upon his tombe this style M. T. Cicero. Have. Then followeth in other letters, Et tu Terentia Antonia, which difference of letters declare that they were not written both at one time. The tombe is long and narrowe, and deepe, walled on every side like a grave, in the botome whereof was found the sayd stone with the writing on it, & the said glasse of ashes, and also another litle glasse of the same proportion, wherein, as they say, are the teares of his friendes, that in those dayes they did use to gather and bury with them, as they did use in Italy and Spaine to teare their haire, to bury with their friendes. In the sayde tombe were a fewe bones. After dinner we rested untill it drew towards evening by reason of the heat. And about foure of the clocke we walked to another Frierie a mile out of the towne called Sant Elia, these are white Friers, there were two, but one is dead, not sixe dayes since. This Frierie hath a garden very pleasant, and well furnished with Orenges, Lemons, pomegranates, and divers other good fruites. The way to it is somewhat ragged, up hill and downe, and very stonie, and in winter very durtie. It standeth very plesantly in a clift betweene two hilles, with a good prospect. From thence we ascended the hill to the Castle, which is situated on the very toppe of a hill. This Castle is very strong, in compasse a large mile and a halfe, which being victualed, (as it is never unfurnished) and manned with men of trust, it may defend it selfe against any Princes power. This Castle taketh the just compasse of the hill, and no other hill neere it, it is so steepe downe, and so high and ragged, that it will tyre any man or ever he be halfe way up. Very nature hath fortified the walles and bulwarkes: It is by nature foure square, and it commandeth the towne and porte. The Venetians have alwayes their Podesta, or Governour, with his two Counsellours resident therein. The towne is well inhabited, & hath great quantitie of housholders. The Iland by report is threescore and tenne miles about, it is able to make twentie thousand fighting men. They say they have alwayes five or sixe hundred horsemen readie at an houres warning. They say the Turke hath assayed it with 100. Gallies, but he could never bring his purpose to passe. It is strange to mee how they should maintaine so many men in this Iland, for their best sustenance is wine, and the rest but miserable. The first of August we were warned aboord by the patron, and towards evening we set sayle, and had sight of a Castle called Torneste, which is the Turkes, and is ten miles from Zante , it did belong to the Venetians, but they have now lost it, it standeth also on a hill on the sea side in Morea . All that night we bare into the sea, because we had newes at Zante of twelve of the Turkes gallies, that came from Rhodes, which were about Modon , Coron, and Candia , for which cause we kept at the sea. The second of August we had no sight of land, but kept our course, and about the third watch the winde scanted, so that we bare with the shore, and had sight of Modon and Coron. The third we had sight of Cavo Mattapan, and all that day by reason of contrary windes, which blew somewhat hard, we lay a hull untill morning. The fourth we were still under the sayd Cape, and so continued that day, and towardes night there grewe a contention in the ship amongst the Hollanders, and it had like to have bene a great inconvenience, for we had all our weapons, yea even our knives taken from us that night. The fift, we sayled by the Bowline, and out of the toppe we had sight of the Iland of Candia, and towardes noone we might see it plaine, and towards night the winde waxed calme. The sixt toward the breake of day we saw two small Ilands called Gozi, and towards noone we were betweene them: the one of these Ilands is fifteene miles about, and the other 10 miles. In those Ilands are nourished store of cattell for butter and cheese. There are to the number of fiftie or sixtie inhabitants, which are Greeks, and they live chiefly on milke and cheese. The Iland of Candia is 700 miles about, it is in length, from Cape Spada, to Cape Salomon, 300 miles, it is as they say, able to make one hundred thousand fighting men. We sayled betweene the Gozi, and Candia , and they are distant from Candia 5 or 6 miles. The Candiots are strong men, and very good archers, and shoot neere the marke. This Ilande is from Zante 300 miles. The seventh we sayled all along the sayd Iland with little winde and unstable, and the eight day towards night we drew to the East end of the Iland. The 9 and 10 we sayled along with a prosperous winde and saw no land. The 11 in the morning, we had sight of the Iland of Cyprus, and towards noone we were thwart the Cape called Ponta Malota, and about foure of the clocke we were as farre as Baffo, and about sunne set we passed Cavo Bianco, and towards nine of the clocke at night we doubled Cavo de la gatte, and ankered afore Limisso, but the wind blew so hard, that we could not come neere the towne, neither durst any man goe on land. The towne is from Cavo de le gatte twelve miles distant. The 12. of August in the morning wee went on land to Limisso: this towne is ruinated and nothing in it worth writing, save onely in the mids of the towne there hath bene a fortresse, which is now decayed, and the wals part overthrowen, which a Turkish Rover with certaine gallies did destroy about 10. or 12. yeeres past. This day walking to see the towne, we chanced to see in the market place, a great quantitie of a certaine vermine called in the Italian tongue Cavalette. It is as I can learne, both in shape and bignesse like a grassehopper, for I can judge but little difference. Of these many yeeres thev have had such quantitie yt they destroy all their come. They are so plagued with them, yt almost every yeere they doe well nie loose halfe their come, whether it be the nature of the countrey, or the plague of God, that let them judge that best can define. But that there may no default be laied to their negligence for the destruction of them, they have throughout the whole land a constituted order, that every Farmor or husbandman (which are even as slaves bought and sold to their lord) shall every yeere pay according to his territorie, a measure full of the seede or egges of these forenamed Cavalette, the which they are bound to bring to the market, and present to the officer appointed for the same, the which officer taketh of them very straight measure, and writeth the names of the presenters, and putteth the sayd egges or seed, into a house appointed for the same, and having the house full, they beate them to pouder, and cast them into the sea, and by this policie they doe as much as in them lieth for the destruction of them. This vermine breedeth or ingendereth at the time of corne being ripe, and the corne beyng had away, in the clods of the same ground do the husbandmen find ye nestes, or, as I may rather terme them, cases of the egges of the same vermine. Their nests are much like to the keies of a hasel-nut tree, when they be dried, and of the same length, but somewhat bigger, which case being broken you shall see the egges lie much like unto antes egges, but somewhat lesser. Thus much I have written at this time, because I had no more time of knowledge, but I trust at my returne to note more of this island, with the commodities of the same at large. The 13. day we went in the morning to the Greekes church, to see the order of their ceremonies, & of their communion, of the which to declare the whole order with the number of their ceremonious crossings, it were to long. Wherefore least I should offend any man, I leave it unwritten: but onely that I noted well, that in all their Communion or service, not one did ever kneele, nor yet in any of their Churches could I ever see any graven images, but painted or portrayed. Also they have store of lampes alight, almost for every image one. Their women are alwayes seperated from the men, and generally they are in the lower ende of the Church. This night we went aboord the ship, although the wind were contrary, we did it because the patrone should not find any lacke of us, as sometimes he did: when as tarying upon his owne businesse, he would colour it with the delay of the pilgrimes. The 14. day in the morning we set saile, and lost sight of the Island of Cyprus, and the 15. day we were likewise at Sea, and sawe no land: and the 16. day towards night, we looked for land, but we sawe none. But because we supposed our selves to be neere our port, we tooke in all our sailes except onely the foresaile and the missen, and so we remained all that night. The 17. day in the morning, we were by report of the Mariners, some sixe miles from Jaffa , but it prooved contrary. But because we would be sure, wee came to an anker seven miles from the shore, and sent the skiffe with the Pilot and the master gunner, to learne the coast, but they returned, not having seen tree nor house, nor spoken with any man. But when they came to the sea side againe, they went up a little hill standing hard by the brinke, whereon as they thought they sawe the hill of Jerusalem, by the which the Pilot knew (after his judgement) that wee were past our port. And so this place where we rode was, as the mariners sayd, about 50. mile from Jaffa . This coast all alongst is very lowe, plaine, white, sandie, and desert, for which cause it hath fewe markes or none, so that we rode here as it were in a gulfe betweene two Capes. The 18. day we abode still at anker, looking for a gale to returne backe, but it was contrary: and the 19. we set saile, but the currant having more force then the winde, we were driven backe, insomuch, that the ship being under saile, we cast the sounding lead, & (notwithstanding the wind) it remained before the shippe, there wee had muddle ground at fifteene fadome. The same day about 4. of the clocke, wee set saile againe, and sayled West alongst the coast with a fresh side-winde. It chanced by fortune that the shippes Cat lept into the Sea, which being downe, kept her selfe very valiauntly above water, notwithstanding the great waves, still swimming, the which the master knowing, he caused the Skiffe with halfe a dosen men to goe towards her and fetch her againe, when she was almost halfe a mile from the shippe, and all this while the shippe lay on staies. I hardly beleeve they would have made such haste and meanes if one of the company had bene in the like perill. They made the more haste because it was the patrons cat. This I have written onely to note the estimation that cats are in, among the Italians, for generally they esteeme their cattes, as in England we esteeme a good Spaniell. The same night about tenne of the clocke the winde calmed, and because none of the shippe knewe where we were, we let fall an anker about 6 mile from the place we were at before, and there wee had muddie ground at twelve fathome. The 20 it was still calme, and the current so strong still one way, that we were not able to stemme the streame: moreover we knew not where we were, whereupon doubting whither wee were past, or short of our port, the Master, Pilot, and other Officers of the shippe entered into counsell what was best to doe, whereupon they agreed to sende the bote on lande againe, to seeke some man to speake with all, but they returned as wise as they went. Then we set sayle againe and sounded every mile or halfe mile, and found still one depth, so we not knowing where we were, came againe to an anker, seven or eight miles by West from the place we were at. Thus still doubting where we were, the bote went on land againe, and brought newes that wee were short 80 miles of the place, whereas we thought wee had beene overshot by east fiftie miles. Thus in these doubts we lost foure dayes, and never a man in the shippe able to tell where we were, notwithstanding there were diverse in the shippe that had beene there before. Then sayd the Pylot, that at his comming to the shore, by chance he saw two wayfaring men, which were Moores, and he cryed to them in Turkish, insomuch that the Moores, partly for feare, and partly for lacke of understanding, (seeing them to be Christians) beganne to flie, yet in the end with much a doe, they stayed to speake with them, which men when they came together, were not able to understand ech other, but our men made to them the signe of the Crosse on the sande, to give them to understand that they were of the shippe that brought the pilgrims. Then the Moores knowing (as al the country else doth) that it was the use of Christians to go to Jerusalem, shewed them to be yet by west of Jaffa . Thus we remained all that night at anker, and the farther west that we sayled, the lesse water we had. The 21 we set sayle againe, and kept our course Northeast, but because we would not goe along the shore by night, wee came to an anker in foure and twentie fathome water. Then the next morning being the 22 we set sayle againe, and kept our course as before, and about three of the clocke in the afternoone wee had sight of the two towers of Jaffa , and about five of the clocke, wee were with a rocke, called in the Italian tongue, Scolio di Santo Petro, on the which rocke they say he fished, when Christ bid him cast his net on the right side, and caught so many fishes. This rocke is now almost worne away. It is from Jaffa two or three mile: here before the two towers we came to an anker. Then the pilgrimes after supper, in salutation of the holy lande, sang to the prayse of God, Te Deum laudamus, with Magnificat, and Benedictus, but in the shippe was a Frier of Santo Francisco, who for anger because he was not called and warned, would not sing with us, so that he stood so much upon his dignitie, that he forgot his simplicitie, and neglected his devotion to the holy land for that time, saying that first they ought to have called him yer they did beginne, because he was a Fryer, and had beene there, and knewe the orders. The 23 we sent the bote on land with a messenger to the Padre Guardian of Jerusalem. This day it was notified unto mee by one of the shippe that had beene a slave in Turkie, that no man might weare greene in this land, because their prophet Mahomet went in greene. This came to my knowledge by reason of the Scrivanello, who had a greene cap, which was forbidden him to weare on the land. The 24. 25. and 26 we taryed in the shippe still looking for the comming of the Padre guardian, and the 26 at night we had a storme which lasted all the next day. The 27 in the morning, came the Cadi, ye Subassi, & the Meniwe, with the Padre guardian, but they could not come at us by reason of the stormy weather: in the afternoone we assayed to send the bote on land, but the weather would not suffer us. Then againe toward night the bote went a shore, but it returned not that night. The same day in the afternoone we sawe in the element, a cloud with a long tayle, like unto the tayle of a serpent, which cloud is called in Italian Cion, the tayle of this cloud did hang as it were into the sea : and we did see the water under the sayde cloude ascend, as it were like a smoke or myste, the which this Cion drew up to it. The Marriners reported to us that it had this propertie, that if it should happen to have lighted on any part of the shippe, that it would rent and wreth sayles, mast, shroudes and shippe and all in manner like a wyth: on the land, trees, houses, or whatsoever else it lighteth on, it would rent and wreth. These marriners did use a certaine conjuration to breake the sayd tayle, or cut it in two, which as they say doth prevaile. They did take a blacke hafted knife, and with the edge of the same did crosse the said taile as if they would cut it in twain, saying these words, Hold thou Cion, eat this, and then they stucke the knife on the ship side with the edge towards the said cloude, and I saw it therewith vanish in lesse then one quarter of an houre. But whether it was then consumed, or whether by vertue of the Inchantment it did vanish I knowe not, but it was gone. Hereof let them judge that know more then I. This afternoone we had no winde, but the Sea very stormy, insomuch that neither cheste, pot, nor any thing else could stand in the shippe, and wee were driven to keepe our meate in one hand, and the pot in the other, and so sit downe upon the hatches to eate, for stand we could not, for that the Seas in the very port at an anker went so high as if wee had bene in the bay of Portugall with stormy weather. The reason is, as the Mariners said to me, because that there meete all the waves from all places of the Straights of Gibraltar, and there breake, and that in most calmes there go greatest seas, whether the winde blow or not. The 28. the weather growing somewhat calme, wee went on land and rested our selves for that day, and the next day we set forward toward the city of Jerusalem. What I did, and what places of devotion I visited in Jerusalem, and other parts of the Holy land, from this my departure from Jaffa , untill my returne to the said port, may briefly be seene in my Testimoniall, under the hand & scale of the Vicar generall of Mount Sion, which for the contentment of the Reader I thought good here to interlace.
THE 15. of September being come from our pilgrimage, we went aborde our shippe, and set saile, and kept our course West toward the Island of Ciprus, but al that night it was calme, and the 16. the winde freshed, and we passed by Mount Carmel. The 17. the winde was very scant, yet we kept the sea, and towards night wee had a guste of raine whereby wee were constrained to strike our sailes, but it was not very stormie, nor lasted very long. The 18. 19. 20. and 21. we kept still the sea and saw no land because we had very litle winde, and that not very favourable. The 22. at noone the Boatswaine sent some of the Mariners into the boat, (which we toed asterne from Jaffa ) for certaine necessaries belonging to the ship, wherein the Mariners found a certaine fish in proportion like a Dace, about 6. inches long (yet the Mariners said they had seene the like a foote long and more) the which fish had on every side a wing, and toward the taile two other lesser as it were finnes, on either side one, but in proportion they were wings and of a good length. These wings grow out betweene the gils and the carkasse of the same fish. They are called in the Italian tongue Pesce columbini, for in deede, the wings being spred it is like to a flying dove, they say it will flie farre, and very high. So it seemeth that being weary of her flight, she fell into the boate, and not being able to rise againe died there. The 23. 24. and 25. we sailed our direct course with a small gale of winde, and this day we had sight of the Island of Cyprus. The first land that we discovered was a headland called Cavo de la Griega, and about midnight we ankered by North of the Cape. This cape is a high hil, long and square, and on the East corner it hath a high cop, that appeareth unto those at the sea, like a white cloud, for toward the sea it is white, and it lieth into the sea Southwest. This coast of Cyprus is high declining toward the sea, but it hath no cliffes. The 26. we set saile againe, and toward noone we came into the port of Salini, where we went on land and lodged that night at a towne one mile from thence called Arnacho di Salini, this is but a village called in Italian, Casalia. This is distant from Jaffa 250. Italian miles. The 27. we rested, and the 28. we hired horses to ride from Arnacho to Salina , which is good mile. The salt pit is very neere two miles in compasse, very plaine and levell, into the which they let runne at the time of raine a quantitie of water comming from the mountaines, which water is let in until the pit be full to a certaine marke, which when it is full, the rest is conveyed by a trench into the sea. This water is let runne in about October, or sooner or later, as the time of the yeere doth afforde. There they let it remaine untill the ende of July or the middest of August, out of which pits at that time, in stead of water that they let in they gather very faire white salt, without any further art or labour, for it is only done by the great heate of the sunne. This the Venetians have, and doe maintaine to the use of S. Marke, and the Venetian ships that come to this Iland are bound to cast out their ballast, and to lade with salt for Venice . Also there may none in all the Iland buy salt but of these men, who maintaine these pits for S. Marke. This place is watched by night with 6. horsemen to the end it be not stolne by night. Also under the Venetians dominions no towne may spende any salt, but they must buy it of Saint Marke, neither may any man buy any salt at one towne to carie to another, but every one must buy his salt in the towne where he dwelleth. Neither may any man in Venice buy more salt then he spendeth in the city, for if he be knowen to carie but one ounce out of the citie and be accused, hee looseth an eare. The most part of all the salt they have in Venice commeth from these Salines, and they have it so plentifull, that they are not able, never a yeere to gather the one halfe, for they onely gather in July, August, and September, and not fully these three monethes. Yet notwithstanding the abundance that the shippes carie away yeerely, there remaine heapes like hilles, some heapes able to lade nine or tenne shippes, and there are heapes of two yeeres gathering, some of three and some of nine or tenne yeeres making, to the value of a great summe of golde, and when the ships do lade, they never take it by measure, but when they come at Venice they measure it. This salt as it lyeth in the pit is like so much ice, and it is sixe inches thicke: they digge it with axes, and cause their slaves to cary it to the heapes. This night at midnight we rode to Famagusta , which is eight leagues from Salina , which is 24 English miles. The 29 about two houres before day, we alighted at Famagusta , and after we were refreshed we went to see the towne. This is a very faire strong holde, and the strongest and greatest in the Iland. The walles are faire and new, and strongly rampired with foure principall bulwarkes, and betweene them turrions, responding one to another, these walles did the Venetians make. They have also on the haven side of it a Castle, and the haven is chained, the citie hath onely two gates, to say, one for the lande and another for the sea, they have in the towne continually, be it peace or warres, 800 souldiers, and fortie and sixe gunners, besides Captaines, petie Captaines, Governour and Generall. The lande gate hath alwayes fiftie souldiers, pikes and gunners with their harnes, watching thereat night and day. At the sea gate five and twentie, upon the walles every night doe watch fifteene men in watch houses, for every watch house five men, and in the market place 30 souldiers continually. There may no soldier serve there above 5. yeres, neither will they without friendship suffer them to depart afore 5. yeres be expired, and there may serve of all nations except Greekes. They have every pay, which is 45. dayes, 15 Mozenigos, which is 15 shillings sterling. Their horsemen have onely sixe soldes Venetian a day, and provender for their horses, but they have also certaine lande therewith to plow and sowe for the maintenance of their horses, but truely I marvell how they live being so hardly fed, for all the sommer they feede onely upon chopt strawe and barley, for hey they have none, and yet they be faire, fat and serviceable. The Venetians send every two yeeres new rulers, which they call Castellani. The towne hath allowed it also two gallies continually armed and furnished. The 30 in the morning we ridde to a chappell, where they say Saint Katherin was borne. This Chappell is in olde Famagusta , the which was destroyed by Englishmen, and is cleane overthrowne to the ground, to this day desolate and not inhabited by any person, it was of a great circuit, and there be to this day mountaines of faire, great, and strong buildings, and not onely there, but also in many places of the Iland. Moreover when they digge, plowe, or trench they finde sometimes olde antient coines, some of golde, some of silver, and some of copper, yea and many tombes and vautes with sepulchers in them. This olde Famagusta is from the other, foure miles, and standeth on a hill, but the new towne on a plaine. Thence we returned to new Famagusta againe to dinner, and toward evening we went about the towne, and in the great Church we sawe the tombe of king Jaques, which was the last king of Cyprus , and was buried in the yere of Christ one thousand foure hundred seventie & three, and had to wife one of the daughters of Venice , of the house of Cornari, the which family at this day hath great revenues in this Island, and by means of that mariage the Venetians chalenge the kingdom of Cyprus . The first of October in the morning, we went to see the reliefe of the watches. That done, we went to one of the Greekes Churches to see a pot or Jarre of stone, which is sayd to bee one of the seven Jarres of water, the which the Lord God at the mariage converted into wine. It is a pot of earth very faire, white enamelled, and fairely wrought upon with drawen worke, and hath on either side of it, instead of handles, eares made in fourme as the Painters make angels wings, it was about an elle high, and small at the bottome, with a long necke and correspondent in circuit to the bottome, the belly very great and round, it holdeth full twelve gallons, and hath a tap-hole to drawe wine out thereat, the Jarre is very auncient, but whether it be one of them or no, I know not. The aire of Famagusta is very unwholesome, as they say, by reason of certaine marish ground adjoyning unto it. They have also a certaine yeerely sicknesse raigning in the same towne, above all the rest of the Island: yet neverthelesse, they have it in other townes, but not so much. It is a certaine rednesse and paine of the eyes, the which if it bee not quickly holpen, it taketh away their sight, so that yeerely almost in that towne, they have about twentie that lose their sight, either of one eye or both, and it commeth for the most part in this moneth of October, and the last moneth: for I have met divers times three and foure at once in companies, both men and women. Their living is better cheape in Famagusta then in any other place of the Island, because there may no kinde of provision within their libertie bee solde out of the Citie. The second of October we returned to Arnacho, where wee rested untill the sixt day. This towne is a pretie Village, there are thereby toward the Sea side divers monuments, that there hath bene great overthrow of buildings, for to this day there is no yere when they finde not, digging under ground, either coines, caves, and sepulchres of antiquities, as we walking, did see many, so that in effect, all alongst the Sea coast, throughout the whole Island, there is much ruine and overthrow of buildings: for as they say, it was disinhabited sixe and thirtie yeres, before Saint Helens time for lacke of water. And since that time it hath bene ruinated and overthrowen by Richard the first of that name, king of England, which he did in revenge of his sisters ravishment comming to Jerusalem, the which inforcement was done to her by the king of Famagusta . The sixt day we rid to Nicosia , which is from Arnacho seven Cyprus miles, which are one and twentie Italian miles. This is the ancientest citie of the Island, and is walled about, but it is not strong neither of walles nor situation: It is by report three Cyprus miles about, it is not throughly inhabited, but hath many great gardens in it, and also very many Date trees, and plentie of Pomegranates and other fruites. There dwell all the Gentilitie of the Island, and there hath every Cavallier or Conte of the Island an habitation. There is in this citie one fountaine rented by saint Marke, which is bound every eight dayes once, to water all the gardens in the towne, and the keeper of this fountaine hath for every tree a Bizantin, which is twelve soldes Venice , and six pence sterling. He that hath that to farme, with a faire and profitable garden thereto belonging, paieth every yeere to saint Marke, fifteene hundred crownes. The streetes of the citie are not paved, which maketh it with the quantitie of the gardens, to seeme but a rurall habitation. But there be many faire buildings in the Citie, there be also Monasteries both of Franks & Greekes. The Cathedrall church is called Santa Sophia, in the which there is an old tombe of Jaspis stone, all of one piece, made in forme of a cariage coffer, twelve spannes long, sixe spannes broad, and seven spannes high, which they say was found under ground. It is as faire a stone as ever I have seene. The seventh day we rid to a Greeke Frierie halfe a mile without the towne. It is a very pleasaunt place, and the Friers feasted us according to their abilitie. These Friers are such as have bene Priests, and their wives dying they must become Friers of this place, and never after eate flesh, for if they do, they are deprived from saying masse: neither, after they have taken upon them this order, may they marry againe, but they may keepe a single woman. These Greekish Friers are very continent and chast, and surely I have seldome seen (which I have well noted) any of them fat. The 8. day we returned to Arnacho, and rested there. The 9. after midnight my company rid to the hill called Monte de la Croce (but I not disposed would not go) which hill is from Arnacho 15. Italian miles. Upon the sayd hill is a certaine crosse, which is, they say, a holy Crosse. This Crosse in times past did by their report of the Island, hang in the ayre, but by a certaine earthquake, the crosse and the chappell it hung in, were overthrowen, so that never since it would hang againe in the aire. But it is now covered with silver, and hath 3. drops of our lordes blood on it (as they say) and there is in the midst of the great crosse, a little crosse made of the crosse of Christ, but it is closed in the silver, you must (if you will) beleeve it is so, for see it you cannot. This crosse hangeth nowe by both endes in the wall, that you may swing it up and downe, in token that it did once hang in the aire. This was told mee by my fellow pilgrimes, for I sawe it not. The 10. at night we went aboord by warning of the patron: and the 11. in the morning we set saile, and crept along the shore, but at night we ankered by reason of contrary windes. The 12. we set saile toward Limisso, which is from Salines 50. miles, and there we went on land that night. The 13. and 14. we remained still on land, and the 15. the patrone sent for us; but by reason that one of our company was not well, we went not presently, but we were forced afterward to hire a boate, and to overtake the ship tenne miles into the sea. At this Limisso all the Venetian ships lade wine for their provision, and some for to sell, and also vineger. They lade also great store of Carrobi: for all the countrey thereabout adjoining, and all the mountaines are full of Carrobi trees, they lade also cotton wooll there. In the sayd towne we did see a certaine foule of the land (whereof there are many in this Island) named in the Italian tongue Vulture. It is a fowle that is as big as a Swanne, and it liveth upon carion. The skinne is full of soft doune, like to a fine furre, which they use to occupie when they have evill stomacks, and it maketh good digestion. This bird (as they say) will eate as much at one meale as shall serve him fortie dayes after, and within the compasse of that time careth for no more meate. The countrey people, when they have any dead beast, they cary it into the mountaines, or where they suppose the sayd Vultures to haunt, they seeing the carion doe immediately greedily seaze upon it, and doe so ingraft their talents, that they cannot speedily rise agayne, by reason whereof the people come and kill them: sometimes they kill them with dogs, and somtimes with such weapons as they have. This foule is very great and hardy, much like an Eagle in the feathers of her wings and backe, but under her great feathers she is onely doune, her necke also long and full of doune. She hath on the necke bone, betweene the necke and the shoulders, a heape of fethers like a Tassell, her thighs unto her knees are covered with doune, her legs strong and great, and dareth with her talents assault a man. They have also in this Island a certaine small bird, much like unto a Wagtaile in fethers and making, these are so extreme fat that you can perceive nothing els in all their bodies: these birds are now in season. They take great quantitie of them, and they use to pickle them with vineger and salt, and to put them in pots and send them to Venice and other places of Italy for presents of great estimation. They say they send almost 1200. Jarres or pots to Venice , besides those which are consumed in the Island, which are a great number. These are so plentifull that when there is no shipping, you may buy them for 10. Carchies, which coine are 4. to a Venetian Soldo, which is peny farthing the dozen, and when there is store of shipping, 2. pence the dozen, after that rate of their money. They of the limites of Famagusta do keep the statutes of ye Frenchmen which sometimes did rule there. And the people of Nicosia observe the order of the Genoueses, who sometimes also did rule them. All this day we lay in the sea with little wind. The 16. we met a Venetian ship, and they willing to speake with us, and we with them, made towards each other, but by reason of the evil stirrage of the other ship, we had almost boorded each other to our great danger. Toward night we ankered under Cavo Bianco, but because the winde grew faire, we set saile againe presently. The 17. 18. 19. and 20. we were at sea with calme sommer weather, and the 20. we had some raine, and saw another Cion in the element. This day also we sawe, and spake with a Venetian ship called el Bonna , bound for Ciprus. The 21. we sailed with a reasonable gale, and saw no land until the 4. of November. This day we had raine, thunder, lightening, and much wind and stormie weather, but God be praised we escaped all dangers. The 4. of November, we had first sight of the Island of Candia, and we fell with the Islands called Gozi, by South of Candia. This day departed this present life, one of our company named Anthonie Gelber of Prussia, who onely tooke his surfet of Cyprus wine. This night we determined to ride a trie, because the wind was contrary, and the weather troublesome. The 5. we had very rough stormie weather. This day was the sayd Anthonie Gelber sowed in a Chavina filled with stones and throwen into the sea. By reason of the freshnes of the wind we would have made toward the shore, but the wind put us to the sea, where we endured a great storme and a troublesome night. The 6. 7. and 8. we were continually at the sea, & this day at noone the wind came faire, whereby we recovered the way which we had lost, and sailed out of sight of Candia . The 9. we sailed all day with a prosperous wind after 14. mile an houre: and the 10. in the morning, wee had sight of Cavo Matapan, and by noone of Cavo Gallo, in Morea , with which land we made by reason of contrary wind, likewise we had sight of Modon , under the which place we ankered. This Modon is a strong towne, and built in the sea, and joineth on the North side to the land. It hath a litle castle built into the sea, with a peere for litle ships and galleis to harbour in. It hath on the South side of the chanell, the Island of Sapientia, with other litle Islands all disinhabited. The chanell lieth Southwest and Northeast betweene the Islands and Morea , which is firme land. This Modon was built by the Venetians, but as some say it was taken from them by force of the Turke, and others say by composition: in like case Coron, and Napolis de Romania, which is also in Morea . This night the Flemmish pilgrimes being drunke would have slaine the patrone because he ankered here. The 11. day we set saile againe, and as we passed by Modon , we saluted them with ordinance, for they that passe by this place, must salute with ordinance, (if they have) or els by striking their top sailes, for if they doe not, the towne will shoot at them. This day toward 2. of the clocke wee passed by the Island of Prodeno, which is but litle, and desert, under the Turke. About 2. houres before night, we had sight of the Islands of Zante and Cephalonia , which are from Modon one hundreth miles. The 12. day in the morning, with the wind at West, we doubled between Castle Torneste, and the Island of Zante. This castle is on the firme land under the Turke. This night we ankred afore the towne of Zante , where we that night went on land, and rested there the 13. 14. and 15. at night we were warned aboord by the patrone. This night the ship tooke in vitailes and other necessaries. The 16. in the morning we set saile with a prosperous wind, and the 17. we had sight of Cavo de santa Maria in Albania , on our right hand, and Corfu on the left hand. This night we ankered before the castles of Corfu , and went on land and refreshed our selves. The 18. by meanes of a friend we were licenced to enter the castle or fortresse of Corfu , which is not onely of situation the strongest I have seene, but also of edification. It hath for the Inner warde two strong castles situated on the top of two high cragges of a rocke, a bowe shoot distant the one from the other: the rocke is unassaultable, for the second warde it hath strong walles, with rampiers and trenches, made as well as any arte can devise. For the third warde and uttermost, it hath very strong walles with rampires of the rocke it selfe cut out by force, and trenched about with the Sea. The bulwarkes of the uttermost warde are not yet finished, which are in number but two: there are continually in the castle seven hundred souldiours. Also it hath continually foure wardes, to wit, for the land entrie one, for the sea entrie another, and two other wardes. Artillerie and other munition of defence alwayes readie planted it hath sufficient, besides the store remaining in their storehouses. The Venetians hold this for the key of all their dominions, and for strength it may be no lesse. This Island is very fruitfull and plentifull of wine and corne very good, and olives great store. This Island is parted from Albania with a chanell, in some places eight and ten, and in other but three miles. Albania is under the Turke, but in it are many Christians. All the horsemen of Corfu are Albaneses; the Island is not above 80. or 90. miles in compasse. The 19. 20. and 21. we remained in the towne of Corfu . The 22. day wee went aboord and set saile, the wind being very calme wee toed the ship all that day, and toward Sunne set, the castle sent a Fragatta unto us, to give us warning of three Foistes comming after us, for whose comming wee prepared and watched all night, but they came not. The 23. day in the morning being calme, wee toed out of the Streight, untill wee came to the olde towne, whereof there is nothing standing but the walles. There is also a new Church of the Greekes called Santa Maria di Cassopo, and the townes name is called Cassopo. It is a good porte. About noone wee passed the Streight, and drew toward the ende of the Island, having almost no wind. This night after supper, by reason of a certaine Hollander that was drunke, there arose in the ship such a troublesome disturbance, that all the ship was in an uprore with weapons, and had it not bene rather by Gods helpe, and the wisedome and patience of the patrone, more then by our procurement, there had bene that night a great slaughter. But as God would, there was no hurt, but onely the beginner was put under hatches, and with the fall hurt his face very sore. All this night the wind blew at Southeast, and sent us forward. The 24. in the morning wee found our selves before an Island called Saseno, which is in the entrie to Valona , and the wind prosperous. The 25. day we were before the hils of Antiveri, and about sunne set wee passed Ragusa , and three houres within night we ankered within Meleda, having Sclavonia or Dalmatia on the right hand of us, and the winde Southwest. The 26 in the morning we set sayle, and passed the channell between Sclavonia and Meleda, which may be eight mile over at the most. This Iland is under the Raguses. At after noone with a hard gale at west and by north we entered the channell betweene the Iland Curzola and the hilles of Dalmatia , in the which channell be many rockes, and the channell not past 3 miles over, and we ankered before the towne of Curzola . This is a pretie towne walled about and built upon the sea side, having on the toppe of a round hill a faire Church. This Iland is under the Venetians, there grow very good vines, also that part toward Dalmatia is well peopled and husbanded, especially for wines. In the said Iland we met with the Venetian armie, to wit, tenne gallies, and three foystes. All that night we remained there. The 27 we set sayle and passed along the Iland, and towards afternoone we passed in before the Iland of Augusta, and about sunne set before the towne of Lesina , whereas I am informed by the Italians, they take all the Sardinas that they spend in Italy . This day we had a prosperous winde at Southeast. Th