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[489] forces he held in reserve.1 At Pittsburg he advised deliberation and begged the American people to keep their temper on both sides of the line. At Cleveland he insisted that “the crisis, as it is called, is an artificial crisis and has no foundation in fact;” and at Philadelphia he assured his listeners that under his administration there would be “no bloodshed unless it was forced upon the Government, and then it would be compelled to act in self-defence.” This last utterance was made in front of Independence

1 The following are extracts from Mr. Lincoln's letters written during the campaign in answer to his position with reference to the anticipated uprisings in the Southern States. They are here published for the first time:

[From a letter to L. Montgomery Bond, Esq., Oct. 15, 1860.1

I certainly am in no temper and have no purpose to embitter the feelings of the South, but whether I am inclined to such a course as would in fact embitter their feelings you can better Judge by my published speeches than by anything I would say in a short letter if I were inclined now, as I am not, to define my position anew.

[From a letter to Samuel Haycraft, dated, Springfield, Ill., June 4, 1860.]

Like yourself I belonged to the old Whig party from its origin to its close. I never belonged to the American party organization, nor ever to a party called a Union party; though I hope I neither am or ever have been less devoted to the Union than yourself or any other patriotic man.

[Private and Confidential.]

My Dear Sir:--Yours of the 9th is just received. I can only answer briefly. Rest fully assured that the good people of the South who will put themselves in the same temper and mood towards me which you do will find no cause to complain of me.

Yours very truly,

A. Lincoln.

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