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[74] glorious field; but it was an important one; it was a most trying one to the Federalists, who were badly fed and hard worked in a waterless country, on a July day, for twelve hours; they were exposed to the demoralizing effects of long-continued artillery fire. In spite of their want of discipline and the very unaccountable rout, the Federalists at first showed alacrity, but after a time they became torpid and difficult to handle.

No one questions the general bravery of Americans, native or adopted, on either side; but a defeat is rendered worse than ridiculous by attempts to turn it into a triumph. Let the unfortunate brave rest content with the sympathy they deserve, and shun the ovations which are the due of the conqueror. Praise and flattery cannot retake a gun, nor save a standard, nor win a battle — even if it be from vox populi in Broadway or Bowery.

Army and Financial measures of the Washington Cabinet.

The government in some measure let the world see what they think of the charges made against the officers of the army in reference to the late battle. Here is an order just published:

[Mr. Russell here gives the order (July 25) of Adjutant-general Thomas, United States Army, directing that volunteer officers shall undergo an examination, as well as the reconstruction of the military districts in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania--ed.]

He then continues:--Yesterday a bill was passed by the House of Representatives imposing a tax on carriages of from $1 to $50; gold watches, $1; silver watches, 50; excise on spirituous liquors, 5 per gallon; and on fermented liquors, 60 per barrel, or 2 a gallon. All incomes over $600 per annum, three per cent., including money at interest, &c. Every interest in the country is also taxed, including a tax on the net income of the banks; but not on their currency or bank circulation. Landed estates are likewise taxed, and if it be accepted by the other branches of the Legislature, the people of the North will begin to feel that fighting is an expensive luxury, particularly if it be unsuccessful.

Generals Banks and Butler, and the fortifications of Fortress Monroe--the defences of James River.

It will be weeks before we have done hearing and seeing accounts of Bull Run, or, as it may be better called, of Manassas, unless some other action intervenes, as is very likely indeed.

Gen. Banks, not finding any advantage in occupying a point in front of Harper's Ferry, on the Virginia side, has, it is affirmed, withdrawn all his troops to a position in Maryland, which commands the passages from the Ferry; and Gen. Butler, at Fortress Monroe, feels himself compelled to abandon his advanced works at Hampton, which I described hurriedly the other day, and to retire to the cover of the guns of the place. Fortress Monroe is quite impregnable to the enemy, for they have not the means of undertaking a regular siege. If they get heavy guns and mortars, however, they can certainly make the interior unpleasant, and should they open trenches the Americans may have a Sebastopol in petto near Old Point Comfort.

Meantime the command of Colonel Phelps, at Newport News, consisting of four regiments, is threatened by the enemy. His camp is intrenched and furnished with a few howitzers and field-pieces, and heavy guns on the river face. I heard him apply to General Butler, when I was there, for horses and harness for his guns, as if he wanted to move them. He is a grim, dour, stern soldier, of the old Puritan type, and if attacked he will defend his camp to the last. Should he be beaten, the Confederates will have both sides of James River.

Relative value of the officers slain on both sides — sons of the “First families” a greater loss than mere Irish or Germans.

The more closely the consequences of Manassas are investigated, the more serious they seem to be. It must be granted that the Confederates feel their losses more severely than the North does. Their colonels and officers are men of mark, and even of privates killed or wounded one sees notices implying that they belong to good families and are well known people. The O's and Macs and Vons (few of the latter), the Corcorans, Camerons, and Bruggers, prisoners, wounded, or killed, are of less consequence to the social system of the North than the Hamptons, Prestons, and Mannings are to the South. If Mr. Davis and a few of the leaders were to fall in battle there would be less chance of the South continuing its struggle with the same heart and confidence; but if all the cabinet were to go to-morrow from Washington, the spirit of the Northern States would not be diminished one iota.

Announcements of the victory by the rebel chiefs.

From the South, as yet, we have only a few scattered details of the fight and of its results; but it can be seen that there was no very great exultation over the victory. The following interesting extracts from the Richmond Enquirer, of July 23, will furnish a good idea of the manner in which the news was received:

[Mr. Russell here gives the despatch of Jefferson Davis to Mrs. Davis, announcing the triumph; also his official report to Adjutant-General Cooper at Richmond, the speech of Mr. Memminger in the rebel Congress announcing the news, with the resolutions passed by that body on the occasion.--See Doe. 7.--ed.]

He then adds:--It will be observed when Mr. Davis telegraphed to his wife he spoke of a dearly-bought victory and a close pursuit. Of the latter there are no evidences; many troops remained till next morning in Centreville, not four miles from the scene of the fight, and General Schenck's report states he withdrew his men in good order at his leisure. It will

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