Secession official reports.
General Price's report.
Headquarters Missouri State Guard, Springfield, August 12, 1861.I have the honor to submit to your Excellency the following report of the operations of the army under my command, at and immediately preceding the battle of Springfield. I began to move my command from its encampment on Cowskin Prairie, in McDonald County, on the 25th of July, toward Cassville, in Barry County, at which place it had been agreed between Gens. McCulloch, Pearce, and myself, that our respective forces, together with those of Brig.-Gen. McBride, should be concentrated, preparatory to a forward movement. We reached Cassville on Sunday, the 28th of July, and on the next day effected a junction with the armies of Gens. McCulloch and Pearce. The combined armies were then put under marching orders, and the First Division, Gen. McCulloch commanding, left Cassville on the 1st of August, upon the road to this city. The Second Division, under Gen. Pearce, of Arkansas, left on the 1st day of August; and the Third Division, Brig.-Gen. Steen, of this State, commanding, left on the 2d day of August. I went forward with the Second Division, which embraced the greater portion of my infantry, and encamped with it some twelve miles north-west of Cassville. The next morning, a messenger from Gen. McCulloch informed me that he had reason to believe that the enemy were in force on the road to Springfield, and that he should remain at his then encampment on Crane Creek until the Second and Third Divisions of the army had come up. The Second Division consequently moved forward to Crane Creek, and I ordered the Third Division to a position within three miles of the same place. The advance guard of the army, consisting of six companies of mounted Missourians, under command of Brig.-Gen. Rains, was at that time (Friday, Aug. 2) encamped on the Springfield road, about five miles beyond Crane Creek. About 9 o'clock A. M. of that day, Gen. Rains' pickets reported to him that they had been driven in by the enemy's advance guard; and that officer immediately led forward his whole force, amounting to nearly 400 men, until he found the enemy in position, some three miles on the road. He sent back at once to Gen. McCulloch for reinforcements, and Col. Me Intosh, C. S. A., was sent forward with 150 men; but a reconnoissance of the ground haying satisfied the latter that the enemy did not have more than 150 men on the ground, he withdrew his men and returned to Crane Creek. Gen. Rains soon discovered, however, that he was in presence of the main body of the enemy, numbering, according to his estimate, more than five thousand men, with eight pieces of artillery, and supported by a considerable body of cavalry. A severe skirmish ensued, which lasted several hours, until the enemy opened their batteries, and compelled our troops to retire. In this engagement the greater portion of Gen. Rains' command, and especially that part which acted as infantry, behaved with great gallantry, as the result demonstrates; for our loss was only one killed, (Lieut. Northcut,) and five wounded, while five of the enemy's dead were buried on the field, and a large number are known to have been wounded. Our whole forces were concentrated the next day near Crane Creek, and during the same night, the Texan regiment, under Col. Greer, came up within a few miles of the same place. Reasons, which will be hereafter assigned, induced me, on Sunday, the 4th inst., to put the Missouri forces under the direction, for the time being, of Gen. McCulloch, who accordingly assumed the command in chief of the combined armies. A little after midnight we took up the line of march, leaving our baggage trains, and expecting to find the enemy near the scene of the late skirmish; but we found, as we advanced, that they were retreating rapidly toward Springfield. We followed them hastily about 17 miles, to a place known as Moody's  Spring, where we were compelled to halt our forces, who were already nearly exhausted by the intense heat of the weather and the dustiness of the roads. Early the next morning we moved forward to Wilson's Creek, ten miles southwest of Springfield, where we encamped. Our forces were here put in readiness to meet the enemy, who were posted at Springfield, to the number of about ten thousand. It was finally decided to march against them; and on Friday afternoon orders were issued to march in four separate columns, at nine o'clock that night, so as to surround the city and begin a simultaneous attack at daybreak. The darkness of the night and a threatened storm caused General McCulloch, just as the army was about to march, to countermand this order, and to direct that the troops should hold themselves in readiness to move whenever ordered. Our men were consequently kept under arms till toward daybreak, expecting, momentarily, an order to march. The morning of Saturday, the 10th of August, found them still encamped at Wilson's Creek, fatigued by a night's watching and loss of rest. About six o'clock, I received a messenger from Gen. Rains that the enemy were advancing in great force from the direction of Springfield, and were already within 200 or 300 yards of the position where he was encamped with the Second Brigade of his division, consisting of about 1,200 mounted men under Col. Cawthorn. A second messenger came immediately afterward from Gen. Rains to announce that the main body of the enemy was upon him, but that he would endeavor to hold him in check until he could receive reinforcements. Gen. McCulloch was with me when these messengers caine, and left at once for his own Headquarters to make the necessary disposition of our forces. I rode forward instantly toward Gen. Rains' position, at the same time ordering Gens. Slack, McBride, Clark, and Parsons to move their infantry and artillery rapidly forward. I had ridden but a few hundred yards when I came suddenly upon the main body of the enemy, commanded by Gen. Lyon in person. The infantry and artillery which I had ordered to follow me came up immediately to the number of 2,036 men, and engaged the enemy. A severe and bloody conflict ensued, my officers and men behaving with the greatest bravery, and, with the assistance of a portion of the Confederate forces, successfully holding the enemy in check. Meanwhile, and almost simultaneously with the opening of the enemy's batteries in this quarter, a heavy cannonading was opened upon the rear of our position, where a large body of the enemy, under Col. Siegel, had taken position, in close proximity to Colonel Churchill's regiment, Colonel Greer's Texan Rangers, and 679 mounted Missourians, under command of Colonel Brown and Lieutenant-Colonel Major. The action now became general, and was conducted with the greatest gallantry and vigor on both sides, for more than five hours, when the enemy retreated in great confusion, leaving their commander-in-chief, General Lyon, dead upon the battle-field, over five hundred killed, and a great number wounded. The forces under my command have possession of three 12-pounder howitzers, two brass 6-pounders, and a great quantity of small-arms and ammunition, taken from the enemy; also, the standard of Siegel's regiment, captured by Captain Staples. They have also a large number of prisoners. The brilliant victory thus achieved upon this hard-fought field, was won only by the most determined bravery, and distinguished gallantry of the combined armies, which fought nobly side by side, in defence of their common rights and liberties, with as much courage and constancy as were ever exhibited upon any battlefield. Where all behaved so well, it is invidious to make any distinction, but I cannot refrain from expressing my sense of the splendid services rendered, under my own eyes, by the Arkansas infantry, under Gen. Pearce, the Louisiana regiment of Col. Hebert, and Col. Churchill's regiment of mounted riflemen. These gallant officers and their brave soldiers won upon that day the gratitude of every true Missourian. This great victory was dearly bought, by the loss of many a skilful officer and brave man. Others will report the losses sustained by the Confederate forces; I shall willingly confine myself to the losses within my own army. Among those who fell mortally wounded upon the battle-field, none deserve a dearer place in the memory of Missourians than Richard Hanson Weightman, Colonel commanding the First brigade of the second division of the army. Taking up arms at the very beginning of this unhappy contest, he had already done distinguished services at the battle of Rock Creek, where he commanded the State forces after the death of the lamented Holloway, and at Carthage, where he won unfading laurels by the display of extraordinary coolness, courage, and skill. He fell at the head of his brigade, wounded in three places, and died just as the victorious shout of our army began to rise upon the air. Here, too, died in the discharge of his duty, Col. Ben. Brown, of Ray County, President of the Senate, a good man and true. Brig.-Gen. Slack's division suffered severely. He himself fell dangerously wounded at the head of his column. Of his regiment of infantry, under Col. John T. Hughes, consisting of about 650 men, 36 were killed, 76 wounded, many of them mortally, and 30 are missing. Among the killed were C. H. Bennet, adjutant of the regiment, Capt. Blackwell, and Lieut. Hughes. Col. Rives' squadron of cavalry, (dismounted,) numbering some 234 men, lost 4 killed and 8 wounded. Among the former were Lieut.-Col. Austin and Capt. Engart.  Brig.-Gen. Clark was also wounded. His infantry (200 men) lost, in killed, 17, and wounded, 71. Col. Burbridge was severely wounded. Capts. Farris and Halleck, and Lieut. Haskins, were killed. Gen. Clark's cavalry, together with the Windsor Guards, were under the command of Lieut.-Col. Major, who did good service. They lost 6 killed and 5 wounded. Brig.-Gen. McBride's division (605 men) lost 22 killed, 67 severely wounded, and 57 slightly wounded. Col. Foster and Capts. Nichols, Dougherty, Armstrong, and Mings were wounded while gallantly leading their respective commands. Gen. Parson's brigade, 256 infantry and artillery, under command respectively of Col. Kelly and Capt. Guibor, and 406 cavalry, Col. Brown, lost — the artillery three killed and seven wounded, the infantry nine killed and thirty-eight wounded, the cavalry three killed and two wounded. Col. Kelly was wounded in the hand. Capt. Coleman was mortally wounded, and has since died. Gen. Rains' division was composed of two brigades — the first under Col. Weightman, embracing infantry, and artillery, 1,306 strong, lost not only their commander, but thirty-four others killed and 111 wounded. The Second brigade, mounted men, Col. Cawthorn commanding, about 1,200 strong, lost twenty-one killed and seventy-five wounded. Col. Cawthorn was himself wounded. Major Charles Rogers, of St. Louis, adjutant of the brigade, was mortally wounded, and died the day after the battle. He was a gallant officer, and at all times vigilant and attentive to his duties, and fearless upon the field of battle. Your Excellency will perceive that our State forces consisted of only 5,221 officers and men; that of these no less than 156 died upon the field, while 517 were wounded. These facts attest more powerfully than any words can, the severity of the conflict, and the dauntless courage of our brave soldiers. It is also my painful duty to announce the death of one of my aids, Lieut.-Col. George W. Allen, of Saline County. He was shot down while communicating an order, and we left him buried on the field. I have appointed to the position thus sadly vacated, Capt. James T. Cearnal, in recognition of his gallant conduct and valuable services throughout the battle as a volunteer aid. Another of my staff, Col. Horace H. Brand, was made prisoner by the enemy, but has since been released. My thanks are due to three of your staff--Col. Wm. M. Cook, Col. Richard Gaines, and Col. Thos. L. Snead, for the services which they rendered me as volunteer aids, and also to my aide-de-camp, Col. A. W. Jones. In conclusion, I beg leave to say to your Excellency, that the army under my command, both officers and men, did their duty nobly, as became men fighting in defence of their homes and their honor, and that they deserve well of the State. I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, your Excellency's obedient servant,
To His Excellency, Claiborne F. Jackson, Governor of the State of Missouri:
To His Excellency, Claiborne F. Jackson, Governor of the State of Missouri:
sterling Price, Major-General, Commanding Missouri State Guard,
J. B. Clark's report
Headquarters, Third District M. S. G., August 12, 1861.General: I have the honor to submit to you the following detailed report of the part taken by the forces under my command in the action with the enemy on the 10th inst., near Springfield, Mo.: At about 15 or 20 minutes before 6 o'clock A. M., and while at breakfast, one of your aids, Col. Richard Gaines, brought me the intelligence that the enemy were upon us, and orders from you to form my command upon the crest of the hill under which I was encamped, and upon the line that I might then find formed, by other forces, ordered to the same point; my forces consisted of one regiment of infantry, commanded by Col. J. Q. Burbridge, and Major John B. Clark, jr., with 376 men, rank and file, and one battalion of cavalry, commanded by Lieut.-Col. James P. Major, with two hundred and fifty men, rank and file. I immediately despatched one of my staff, Col. R. H. Munson, with orders to Lieut.-Col. Major, (then encamped one mile and a half from me,) to report his command to me as early as possible at Headquarters. I also ordered Col. Burbridge, with whom I was encamped, to form his command instantly into line, which was promptly executed; and hearing cannonading at this time, I determined to move forward with this regiment of infantry to the position designated by your orders, leaving Capt. Jos. Finks, one of my assistant aids, with directions to order Col. Major, when he came up, to follow with his command. When I had moved forward about three hundred yards from my encampment, I discovered the enemy strongly posted in our front, upon the heights, engaging the command of Brig.Gen. W. Y. Slack, upon whose left my forces of infantry were formed. In a few minutes after Col. Kelly, of Gen. Parsons' command, formed upon my left, and rapidly following came the command of Gen. J. H. McBride, who formed upon the left of Col. Kelly, and commanded a flank movement upon the right of the enemy. In this position, by your orders, and led in person by yourself, the entire line advanced in the direction of the enemy, under a continuous and heavy fire of artillery and musketry, until we approached within range of our rifle guns, when we returned the fire with such terrific effect as to drive the enemy from his position, and cause him to make a rapid retrograde movement, after having borne up and resisted the steady advance and deadly aim of our riflemen for some thirty or forty minutes. At this  moment, a heavy cannonading was heard immediately in our rear, which seemed to be directed at our line, producing a momentary confusion, and causing a suspension of the pursuit of the enemy until Gen. McCulloch came up, and detached the Louisiana regiment, which had been engaging the enemy on the extreme right, and a portion of my own forces, and employed them against the batteries in our rear. Gen. Parsons' battery, which had been previously engaged against the enemy, now moved forward in line with our remaining column immediately on our right, upon the left of Gen. Slack. A portion of the Arkansas forces, under the command of Gen. Pearce, also came up and formed on the left of the line. With this formation you ordered a rapid movement to be made in the direction the enemy retired, and after advancing a short distance we again found him drawn up in great force, who opened again with a brisk fire upon us. We continued to advance until reaching again the range of rifle shot, and then an incessant fire of artillery and small-arms commenced on either side, and was continued for about an hour, when the enemy disengaged, and terror-stricken by the number of his dead and wounded heaped around him, together with the fall of his chief and other officers, fled with consternation and confusion in small detachments, many of them abandoning their arms and ammunition as they fled. The first battalion of cavalry, at the moment of receiving my orders, were attacked by a detachment of the enemy which had come in upon the rear, and was so hotly pressed that Lieut.-Col. Major was driven to the necessity of having to retire under cover of the wood to form his line. After forming his forces, he marched in the direction he had been ordered, when, I regret to say, large bodies of horsemen, who had been cut off from their companies, rushed through his line, dividing his forces, and leaving the colonel with but one company. I am glad, however, to be able to state that the gallant colonel, aided by Col. C. W. Bell, assistant adjutant-general, and Captain Joseph Finks, one of my assistant aids, succeeded in gathering up some 300 mounted men, who, under his command, attacked the forces in our rear, commanded by Gen. Siegel, capturing 157 prisoners, and killing 64 men; the balance of his forces, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Hyde and Major A. H. Chalmers, succeeded in reaching the line of battle in time to form upon the right of Gen. Slack, where they rendered most prompt and efficient service. For full particulars of the operations of this battalion, I refer you to the report of Lieut.-Col. Major. In the several engagements referred to, I regret the necessity of enumerating so large a list of killed and wounded, hereinafter stated. Before closing this report of the sanguinary battle of the 10th, I beg leave to make my acknowledgments to my staff; also Cols. Robert Walker and Woodson, my assistant aids; especially do I desire to bring before your particular notice the gallant and intrepid manner in which my orders were conveyed by Lieut.Cols. Wm. O. Burton and Samuel Farmington, the former of whom had two, and the latter one horse shot under them, while delivering orders. Throughout the entire engagement, these officers were distinguished for their bravery and dauntless valor. I desire, also, to make my acknowledgments to Col. J. Q. Burbridge, who was severely wounded while gallantly urging forward his men. I desire, also, to commend to your favorable notice Major John B. Clark, upon whom was devolved the command of the regiment in the latter part of the engagement, and who ably and gallantly led his forces, continuously exposed to the greatest peril, but providentially escaped with a slight wound to himself and horse. I desire, also, to bring before your favorable notice Lieut.-Cols. James P. Major and Hyde, and Major A. H. Chalmers, who, at the head of their respective forces, rendered valuable service under many disadvantages. I desire, especially, to bring to your notice J. P. Orr, of Paris, Mo., who bore our standard through the heat of the conflict, though badly wounded, and having his colors torn into shreds by the bullets of the enemy. I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price, Commanding Missouri State Guard:--
Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price, Commanding Missouri State Guard:--
John B. Clark, Brigadier-General, Third District M. S. G.
Ben. McCulloch's despatch.
Hon. L. P. Walker: The battle of Oakhill has been fought, and we have gained a great victory over the enemy, commanded by Gen. N. Lyon. The battle was fought ten miles from Springfield. The enemy were nine or ten thousand strong; our force was about the same. The battle lasted six and a half hours. The enemy were repulsed and driven from the field, with the loss of six pieces of artillery, several hundred stands of small-arms, eight hundred killed, one thousand wounded, and three hundred prisoners. Gen. Lyon was killed, and many of their prominent officers. Our loss was two hundred and sixty-five killed, eight hundred wounded, and thirty missing. We have possession of Springfield, and the enemy are in full retreat toward Rolla.
Benj. McCulloch, Brigadier-General Commanding.
Ben. McCulloch's report.
Headquarters McCulloch's brigade, camp Weightman, near Springfield, Mo., August 12, 1861.General: I have the honor to make the following official report of the battle of the Oak Hills on the 10th inst. Having taken position about ten miles from Springfield, I endeavored to gain the necessary information of  the strength and position of the enemy, stationed in and about the town. The information was very conflicting and unsatisfactory. I however made up my mind to attack the enemy in their position, and issued orders on the 9th inst. to my force to start at nine o'clock at night to attack at four different points at daylight. A few days before, General Price, in command of the Missouri forces, turned over his command to me, and I assumed command of the entire force, comprising my own brigade, the brigade of Arkansas State forces, under General Pearce, and General Price's command of Missourians. My effective force was five thousand three hundred infantry, fifteen pieces of artillery, and six thousand horsemen, armed with flint-lock muskets, rifles, and shot-guns. There were other horsemen with the army, who were entirely unarmed, and instead of being a help were continually in the way. When the time arrived for the night march it began to rain slightly, and fearing, from the want of cartridge boxes, that my ammunition would be ruined, I ordered the movement to be stopped, hoping to move the next morning. My men had but twenty-five rounds of cartridge apiece, and there was no more to be had. While still hesitating in the morning the enemy was reported advancing, and I made arrangements to meet him. The attack was made simultaneously at half-past 5 A. M., on our right and left flanks, and the enemy had gained the positions they desired. General Lyon attacked us on our left and General Siegel on our right and rear. From these points batteries opened upon us. My command was soon ready. The Missourians under Generals Slack, Clark, McBride, Parsons and Rains, were nearest the position taken by General Lyon with his main force; they were instantly turned to the left and opened the battle with an incessant fire of small-arms. Woodruff opposed his battery to the battery of the enemy under Capt. Totten, and a constant cannonading was kept up between these batteries during the engagement. Hebert's regiment of Louisiana Volunteers, and McIntosh's regiment of Arkansas Mounted Riflemen, were ordered to the front, and after passing the battery, (Totten's,) turned to the left and soon engaged the enemy with the regiments deployed. Col. McIntosh dismounted his regiment and the two marched up abreast to a fence around a large corn-field, where they met the left of the enemy already posted. A terrible conflict of small-arms took place here. The opposing force was a body of regular United States infantry, commanded by Capts. Plummer and Gilbert. Notwithstanding the galling fire poured on these two regiments, they leaped over the fence, and gallantly led by their colonels, drove the enemy before them, back upon the main body. During this time, the Missourians under General Price were nobly attempting to sustain themselves in the centre, and were hotly engaged on the sides of the height upon which the enemy were posted. Far on the right, Siegel had opened his battery upon Churchill's and Greer's regiments, and had gradually made his way to the Springfield road, upon each side of which the army was encamped, and in a prominent position he established his battery. I at once took two companies of the Louisiana regiment, who were nearest me, and marched them rapidly from the front and right to the rear, with order to Col. McIntosh to bring up the rest. When we arrived near the enemy's battery, we found that Reid's battery had opened upon it, and it was already in confusion. Advantage was taken of it, and soon the Louisianians were gallantly charging among the guns, and swept the cannoneers away. Five guns were here taken, and Siegel's command, completely routed, were in rapid retreat, with a single gun, followed by some companies of the Texan regiment and a portion of Colonel Major's Missouri cavalry. In the pursuit many of the enemy were killed and taken prisoners, and their last gun captured. Having cleared our right and rear, it was necessary to turn all our attention to the centre, under Gen. Lyon, who was pressing upon the Missourians, having driven them back. To this point McIntosh's regiment, under Lieut.Col. Embry, and Churchill's regiment on foot, Gratiot's regiment and McRae's battalion were sent to their aid. The terrible fire of musketry was now kept up along the whole side and top of the hill, upon which the enemy was posted. Masses of infantry fell back and again rushed forward. The summit of the hill was covered with the dead and wounded-both sides were fighting with desperation for the day, Carroll's and Greer's regiments, led gallantly by Capt. Bradfute, charged the battery, but the whole strength of the enemy was immediately in rear, and a deadly fire was opened upon them. At this critical moment, when the fortune of the day seemed to be at the turning point, two regiments of Gen. Pearce's brigade were ordered to. march from their position (as reserves) to support the centre. The order was obeyed with alacrity, and Gen. Pearce gallantly rushed with his brigade to the rescue. Reed's battery was also ordered to move forward, and the Louisiana regiment was again called into action on the left of it. The battle then became general, and probably no two opposing forces ever fought with greater desperation; inch by inch the enemy gave way, and were driven from their position; Totten's battery fell back ; Missourians, Arkansians, Louisianians, and Texans pushed forward. The incessant roll of musketry was deafening, and the balls fell as thick as hail stones; but still our gallant Southerners pushed onward, and with one wild yell broke upon the enemy, pushing them back and strewing the ground with their dead. Nothing could withstand the impetuosity of our final charge; the enemy fled and could not again be rallied, and they were seen, at 12 M.,  last retreating among the hills in the distance. Thus ended the battle. It lasted six hours and a half. The force of the enemy, between nine and ten thousand, was composed of well-disciplined troops, well armed, and a large part of them belonging to the old army of the United States. With every advantage on their side, they have met with a signal repulse. The loss of the enemy is at least eight hundred killed, one thousand wounded, and three hundred prisoners. We captured six pieces of artillery and several hundred stand of small-arms and several of their standards. Major-General Lyon, chief in command, was killed. Many of the officers, high in rank, were wounded. Our loss was also severe, and we mourn the death of many a gallant officer and soldier. Our killed amount to two hundred and sixty-five, eight hundred wounded, and thirty missing. Col. Weightman fell at the head of his brigade of Missourians, while gallantly charging upon the enemy. His place will not be easily filled. Generals Slack and Clark of Missouri were severely wounded--Gen. Price slightly. Capt. Hinson of the Louisiana regiment, Capt. McAlexander of Churchill's regiment, Captains Bell and Brown of Pearce's brigade, Lieuts. Walton and Weaver--all fell while nobly and gallantly doing their duty. Col. McIntosh was slightly wounded by a grape-shot, while charging with the Louisiana regiment--Lieut.-Col. Neal, Major H. Ward, Captains King, Pearson, Gibbs, Ramsaur, Porter, Lieutenants Dawson, Chambers, Johnson, King, Adams, Hardista, McIvor, and Saddler, were wounded while at the head of their companies. Where all were doing their duty so gallantly, it is almost unfair to discriminate. I must, however, bring to your notice, the gallant conduct of the Missouri Generals — McBride, Parsons, Clark, Black, and their officers. To Gen. Price, I am under many obligations for assistance on the battle-field. He was at the head of his force leading them on and sustaming them by his gallant bearing. Gen. Pearce with his Arkansas brigade, (Gratiot's, Walker's, and Dockery's regiments of infantry) came gallantly to the rescue when sent for; leading his men into the thickest of the fight, he contributed much to the success of the day. The commanders of regiments of my own brigade, Cols. Churchill, Greer, Embry, McIntosh, Hebert, and McRae led their different regiments into action with great coolness and bravery, and were always in front of their men cheering them on. Woodruff and Reid managed their batteries with great ability, and did much execution. For those officers and men who were particularly conspicuous, I will refer the Department to the reports of the different commanders. To my personal staff I am much indebted for the coolness and rapidity with which they carried orders about the field, and would call particular attention to my volunteer aids, Capt. Bledsoe, Messrs. Armstrong, Ben Johnston, (whose horse was killed under him,) Hamilton Pike, and Major King. To Major Montgomery, quartermaster, I am also indebted for much service as an aid during the battle; he was of much use to me. To Col. McIntosh, at one time at the head of his regiment, and at other times in his capacity of adjutant-general, I cannot give too much praise. Wherever the balls flew thickest he was gallantly leading different regiments into action, and his presence gave confidence everywhere. I have the honor to be, sir, Your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General J. Cooper, Adjutant-General, C. S. A.:
Brigadier-General J. Cooper, Adjutant-General, C. S. A.:
Ben McCulloch, Brigadier-General Commanding.
Missouri Democrat narrative.
Springfield, the key of the entire Southwest, had already been discussed and settled in the negative. It was decided that the loyal citizens of Green and the surrounding counties should not have cause to say we had left them without a struggle, abandoned themselves, their families, their all, to a heartless and desperate foe, until the enemy had felt our steel and tried the mettle of our troops. The mettle proved itself worthy of the great cause in which it was engaged. The Union troops who fought and won the battle of yesterday need no higher mark, no brighter name, than the laurels earned justly entitle them to. They fought like brave men, long and well. General Siegel, with six pieces of cannon, his own regiment, and that of Colonel Salomon's, moved in a southerly direction, marching about fifteen miles, passing around the extreme southeastern camp of the enemy, and halted until daylight, or for the sound of artillery from the northwest to announce the opening of the battle. General Lyon, with the volunteers composing the Missouri First, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrews, Iowa First, Lieutenant-Colonel Merritt, Kansas First, Colonel Dietzler, and Second, Colonel Mitchell, part of the Missouri Second, under Major Osterhaus, and a detachment of twenty men from Colonel Wyman's Illinois regiment, three or four companies of mounted Home Guards, a force of regulars about eight hundred strong, and two batteries of four and six pieces respectively, left Springfield about eight o'clock P. M., marching slowly along until two A. M.,  when we halted for two hours, at which time Captain Gilbert's company of regulars and Major Osterhaus' battalion were thrown out as skirmishers on either side of the column, and we moved forward. Shortly after five o'clock a party of rebels, acting as a picket, were seen scattering over the hills to give the alarm; but a portion of our column had already penetrated far enough to cut off their route, unless they took a very circuitous one, in which case we should reach camp ahead of them. We soon came in sight of the valley in which they were encamped. A thousand tents, stretching off into the distance, and partially screened from view by a hill jutting into an angle of Wilson's Creek, were before us, presenting as animated appearance as a young city. The enemy's camp extended from the head of the valley, overlooked on the north, east, and west sides by hills and ridges two or three hundred feet in height southward about a mile, thence eastward a mile and a half, and then southward half a mile, following the windings of the creek, along whose banks the gently sloping hills on either side afforded the most excellent camping ground. Near the northern end of the valley lived John McNary, formerly from Indiana, who, finding the rebels within five miles, on Tuesday last packed up his few worldly goods, took his family, and started for the good old Hoosier State, where it is not a crime to be loyal to the Government under which we live. Not less than twenty or thirty families, living on farms in the vicinity, started about the same time, most of them having little or no idea where they were going, except to escape from the danger which threatened them. The battle-field viewed by your correspondent, where the most severe fighting was done, was along the ridges and hills on either side (mostly on the west) of the stream for the first mile mentioned above, where the creek runs in a southerly direction. As we crossed the hill on the north, moving in a southwesterly direction, Captain Wright, with the mounted Home Guards, was sent to the east side so as to cut off a party of rebels seen in that direction. Adjutant Hascock, with a glass, rode to the brow of the hill, where, looking down, he could see every movement of the enemy beneath him. His appearance in full view caused a great hubbub in the rebel camp, which had already been thoroughly aroused by our appearance, and camps and baggage were hastily loaded and moved toward the south. We had completely surprised them. The evidence of that fact was everywhere visible; but they had got quickly into line of battle — their clouds of cavalry were visible, and their twenty-one pieces of cannon were not long silent after ours had opened the engagement. On the sides of the first ridge on the western side of the valley, Colonel Blair's regiment, at ten minutes after six o'clock, encountered a heavy force of infantry, not less than a full regiment, and after a severe contest they gained the summit, and the defeated rebels dispersed rapidly, going in a direction which rendered it impossible for any considerable number of them to again participate in the battle. Totten's battery then threw a few balls as feelers, to draw out the enemy's cannon. Colonel Blair's regiment moved forward, and were soon met by a well-equipped regiment of Louisiana troops, whom, after a bitter contest of forty-five minutes, they succeeded in routing, though suffering severely themselves. Captain Lathrop's company of rifle recruits now assisted them, and together they, with Major Osterhaus' men, moved up the second hill, which was considerably larger than the first, and, meeting a third regiment, finally succeeded in driving them back with the assistance of Totten's battery, and gaining the summit. In this part of the fight the gallant Missouri volunteers acted bravely; indeed, no words of praise could more than do them justice. Of course, many acts of valor were performed not witnessed by me; but among those I saw Captain Gratz, leading his men against overwhelming odds, and falling in death just as he had repulsed the foe; Lieutenant Murphy dashing forward ahead of the line, waving his sword high in the air, shouting onward to the almost wavering men, who gained fresh courage from the exhibition, and, pushing forward, drove the enemy from the field. In this fight many of our brave soldiers fell to rise no more; while Colonel Andrews had his horse shot from under him, and was wounded himself slightly. General Lyon suffered in a similar manner. Captains Cavender, Cole, and Yates, each slightly, or at least not dangerously wounded; Lieutenants Brown and Johnson, and Corporals Conant and Rogers, more or less severely wounded. During this engagement, two companies of regulars were sent to the east side of the creek, to engage a force which was operating against Captain Wright's cavalry, sheltering themselves behind a fence. Captain Plummer and Captain Gilbert, with their companies, marched close up to the fence and delivered an effective fire, but were compelled by great odds to retire, which they did, but again renewed the attack. The enemy, being largely reinforced, and having now at least three thousand men, jumped over into the corn-field, and Captain Plummer's gallant band was imminently threatened with annihilation. They retreated rapidly, firing as they did so, when Lieutenant Dubois, having got his battery under headway on the hill near the Missouri volunteers, seeing the position of affairs on the opposite side of the valley, threw in the most precise manner several shells, which exploded lust as they reached the dense mass of secessionists, scattering them lifeless on the ground in scores, while all who could were glad to run for dear life. The gallant men in Colonel Blair's regiment  were now ordered back, and their position taken by the Iowa First. General Lyon had previously had a poor opinion of the fighting qualities of these men, formed more from supposition than upon any real failure in duty; but now the time had come for him to reverse his judgment, which he did after their first repulse of the enemy. They fought like tigers, drove the enemy back, and followed up the advantage gained for a considerable distance. Captain Mason, Company C, was killed soon after his regiment was engaged. Lieutenant Purcell was mortally wounded. Major Porter and Colonel Merritt, gallantly cheering on their boys, escaped unharmed. The Kansas First and Second regiments were now ordered forward to support the right flank of the Iowas. Colonel Green's regiment of Tennessee cavalry, bearing a secession flag, now charged upon our wounded, who were partially guarded by one or two companies of infantry. Seeing the movement, Captain Totten poured a few rounds of canister into their ranks just in time to save our sick men from being trampled to death, dispersing the rebels so completely that nothing more was seen of them during the day. Gen. Lyon now desired the Iowa boys, whom he had found so brave, to prepare to meet the next onset of the enemy with the bayonet immediately after firing. They said, “Give us a leader and we will follow to death.” On came the enemy in overwhelming numbers, confident of victory over such a meagre force. No time could be lost to select a leader. “I will lead you,” said Lyon. “Come on, brave men;” and placing himself in the van, received a fatal bullet in the pit of the stomach which killed him instantly. The Iowas delivered their fire and the enemy retired, so there was no need of charging bayonets. Gen. Lyon's body was carefully picked up and conveyed lifeless toward the ambulances by two of his body guard. In his death, as in his life, he was the same devoted, patriotic soldier, regarding his own life of no value if he could but rescue his country. His body has been brought hither and embalmed, for conveyance to his friends in Connecticut. There was no feeling of depression on the part of the troops at the unexpected calamity, but rather a feeling of quiet determination to revenge his death. On the Tuesday night previous he had arranged for a night attack upon the enemy, but singularly found himself delayed two hours behind the proper time for starting, by rumors of a skirmish on the prairie west of the town, and the attack was postponed. Wednesday he said to me: “Well I begin to believe our term of soldiering is about completed. I have tried earnestly to discharge my whole duty to the Government, and appealed to them for reinforcements and supplies; but, alas, they do not come, and the enemy is getting advantage of us.” He then called a council of war, at which there was nearly an unanimous voice for evacuating Springfield. Gen. Sweeney pleaded eloquently against such a course, declared it would be the ruin of the Union cause in that quarter of the State, and urged a battle as soon as the enemy were within striking distance. He also pointed out the loss of reputation both to the General and his officers which would follow such a step. This counsel decided the course to be pursued, and Thursday, when the brigade quartermaster inquired when we were to leave Springfield, Gen. Lyon replied, “Not before we are whipped.” This was the proper course to pursue. If he retreated without a battle he would certainly have been pursued by a boastful and unpunished enemy, and very likely have his retreat entirely cut off. After being wounded, he exclaimed to Major Schofield, “The day is lost,” but the Major said, “No, General, let us try once more.” So they tried, and the General fell. It was now a little after nine o'clock, and the battle had raged with a fierceness seldom if ever equalled for over three hours. The smoke hung like a storm cloud over the valley, a fit emblem of mourning for the departed hero.
He sleeps his last sleep, he has fought his last battle,The battle raged for two hours more, the command devolving upon Major Sturgis. The enemy made repeated attempts to retake the heights from which they had been driven, but were gallantly repulsed each time. The Kansas regiments behaved with a bravery seldom or never equalled, forming ambuscades for the benefit of the rebels by laying fiat on the ground until the enemy cane near enough for them to see their eyebrows, when they would pour a deadly volley into their opponents and again remain in possession of the field. The last repulse of the enemy was the most glorious of all, and Was participated in by the members of every regiment on the field. The enemy came fresh and deceived our men by bearing a Union flag, causing them to believe Siegel was about making a junction with our forces. Discovering the ruse just in time, our gallant boys rushed upon the enemy, who, with four cannon belching forth loud-mouthed thunder, were on the point of having their efforts crowned with success, and again drove them with great loss down the slope on the south side of the hill. Captain Totten's ammunition was now nearly exhausted, and placing Dubois' battery upon the hill at the north end of the valley, Major Sturgis ordered the ambulances to move toward town. The infantry and Totten's full battery followed in good order and were not pursued by the enemy, who was evidently glad to be let alone. Among the prisoners taken was a surgeon living in St. Charles County. He was immediately released, and Dr. Melcher accompanied him to the rebel Generals, arranging for the return of our wagons to bring in our wounded and dead. Lieutenant-Colonel Horace H. Brand, of the First regiment, Sixth Division, who commanded the rebel force at Booneville,  and who said he was now acting as aid to General Price, was taken prisoner early in the day. The Illinois Twentieth made themselves useful by guarding the prisoners. One of them had a horse shot under him. When General Siegel, who commanded the eastern division, heard the roar of Totten's artillery, he at once attacked the enemy in his quarter, driving him half a mile, and taking possession of his camp extending westward to the Fayetteville road. Here a terrible fire was poured into his ranks by a regiment which he had permitted to advance within a few paces of him, supposing it to be the Iowa First. His men scattered considerably, and Col. Salomon's could not be rallied. Consequently Siegel lost five of his guns, the other being brought away by Capt. Flagg, who compelled his prisoners, some sixty in number, to draw the artillery off the field. Our troops took some four hundred horses and about seventy prisoners, and compelled the enemy to burn nearly all of his baggage to keep it from falling into our hands. The enemy had twenty-one pieces of cannon, and at least twenty-six, including those taken from Siegel. There were none of them worked with precision, every shot for nearly an hour going whiz twenty feet over our heads. Our army reached Springfield in safety, and are now preparing to move toward Rolla, but with no hopes whatever of reaching there. With a baggage train five miles long to protect, it will be singular, indeed, if the enemy does not prove enterprising enough to cut off a portion of it, having such a heavy force of cavalry. With two more regiments we should have driven the enemy entirely from the valley, and, with a proper cavalry force, could have followed up such a victory with decisive results. Our loss is about two hundred killed and six hundred or seven hundred wounded, while the loss of the enemy must have been double our own. Dr. Schenck, who was in the rebel camp at a late hour last evening, bringing away our wounded, reports our men comparatively few with those of the enemy, whose dead were lying thick under the trees.
No sound shall awake him to glory again.
--St. Louis Democrat, August 15.
New York Tribune narrative.
St. Louis. A review of the events immediately preceding the battle, will show the causes which induced Gen. Lyon to attack an army formidably armed and equipped and outnumbering his own more than three to one. It will be seen that to the last he was the gallant soldier and true patriot, with an eye single to the cause of the Union, and counting his own life as nothing compared with the honor and glory of his country. As I wrote you on the 7th, the enemy were encamped twelve miles from Springfield on Tuesday, while our force was scattered upon the different roads leading to the city, at a distance of three to five miles. Two thousand were five miles from town, on the Fayetteville road, under command of Major Sturgis, of the regular army. This force was ordered by Gen. Lyon to be ready to move at a moment's notice, and at 6 P. M. on that day they were in ranks, artillery horses harnessed, and every thing in readiness. Shortly after 9 o'clock an incessant stream of visitors, messengers, and communications poured in upon the General, some reporting the engagement of Capt. Stockton of the Kansas First, and two companies of Home Guards with a party of rebel cavalry, on the prairie west of the town, in which two of the latter were wounded and carried off by their comrades; others receiving orders, and still others waiting for the same. Two companies were ordered to the relief of Capt. Stockton. Eight companies of the Kansas First, part of the Kansas Second, and Major Osterhaus' battalion Missouri Second, were ordered to a certain point in town to await the arrival of Gen. Lyon, who, strange to say, was so entirely occupied that, instead of starting at 10 o'clock, it was two hours later when he left his Headquarters, and without looking at his watch he proceeded to Camp Hunter, having already ordered Major Sturgis to drive in the enemy's pickets if within two miles of his own. Captain Steele's company of cavalry were despatched on this errand at half-past 12, and General Lyon, with the troops above mentioned, arrived at 3 A. M. Here he consulted his watch, and finding it more than two hours later than he supposed, at once called together the principal officers, communicated his embarrassing position, and took their advice, which resulted in the withdrawal of the entire force to Springfield. The General had intended moving his force seven miles further, and attacking the enemy at daylight. On the return to town, the General said to a friend that he had a premonition that a night attack would prove disastrous, and yet he had felt impelled to try it once, and did not know but he must do so again. Before we reached Springfield it was daylight. An ambush was prepared a mile from the city, which would open upon the enemy if they pursued. During Wednesday continual alarms were circulating, and a real panic prevailed among the citizens, who rapidly packed up and left for supposed places of safety. The troops were under arms in every quarter, and several times it was reported that fighting had actually commenced.  Toward night the panic in a degree subsided, but many of those who remained did not retire or attempt to sleep. A consultation was held, and the question of evacuating Springfield seriously discussed. Looking at it in a military point of view, there was no doubt of the propriety, and even necessity, of the step, and many of Gen. Lyon's officers counselled such a movement. Some favored a retreat in the direction of Kansas, while others regarded Rolla as the more desirable. Gen. Sweeney, however, pointed out the disastrous results which must ensue upon retreating without a battle — how the enemy would be flushed and boastful over such an easy conquest, the Union element crushed or estranged from us, and declared himself in favor of holding on to the last moment and of giving the enemy battle as soon as he should approach within striking distance. This kind of counsel decided Gen. Lyon to remain, save his own reputation and that of the officers under him, and not evacuate Springfield until compelled. Thursday morning the rebels were reported actually advancing upon the city. The troops were quickly in line of battle, baggage-wagons all sent to the centre of the town, and in this position they remained during nearly the entire day. The enemy having been reinforced, had encamped in position two miles nearer the city on Wilson's Creek, their tents being on either side of it, and extending a mile east and south of the road, crossing to two miles west and north of the same, the creek running nearly in the shape of a horizontal <01>. At the crossing of the Fayetteville road the hills on either side of the stream were two or three hundred feet high, the slopes being very gentle on the north and abrupt on the south side, and the valley about half a mile in width, though in many places up stream or west and northward, the slopes were so gentle that they were occupied by tents for a much greater distance. Thursday evening the troops were ready for marching orders, but a portion of the Kansas troops had been so much engaged the night before as to be really unfit for service, and an order for all except those actually on guard to retire and rest was issued, and the night attack was again deferred. Friday the city was remarkably quiet. Those who made it a business to repeat exciting rumors had been frightened away with much of the material upon which they operated. Enlistments in the Springfield regiment “for the war” were rapid, and a feeling of security prevailed. During the afternoon Capt. Wood's Kansas cavalry with one or two companies of regulars, drove five hundred rebel rangers from the prairie five miles west of the town, capturing eight of their number and killing two, without loss to our side. At 8 o'clock in the evening, Gen. Siegel, with his own and Colonel Salomon's command, and six pieces of artillery, moved southward, marching until nearly 2 o'clock, and passing around the extreme camp of the enemy, where he halted thirteen miles from town, and on the south side of the rebels, ready to move forward and begin the attack as soon as he should hear the roar of Gen. Lyon's artillery. The main body of troops, under Gen. Lyon, moved from the city about the same hour, halted a short time five miles west of the city, thence in a southwesterly direction four miles, where we halted and slept till 4 A. M., Saturday, the day of the battle. Moving forward, with Captain Plummer's company and Major Osterhaus' battalion thrown out as skirmishers, we soon saw a party of rebel pickets near our extreme right, scampering off to alarm the camp, but as our centre and left were already partially between them and camp, they were forced to the westward, and it is doubtful whether they reached the camp at all before the battle. It was now five o'clock. The enemy's pickets were driven in; the northern end of the valley in which they were encamped was visible, with its thousands of tents and its camp-fires; the sky was cloudy, but not threatening, and the most terribly destructive of battles, compared with the number engaged, was at hand. Our army moved now toward the southwest, to leave the creek and a spring which empties in it on our left. Passing over a spur of high land which lies at the north end of the valley, they entered a valley, and began to ascend a hill moderately covered with trees and underwood, which was not, however, dense enough to be any impediment to the artillery. Capt. Wright, with three or four companies of mounted Home Guards, the only ones in the engagement, was sent to the left, across the creek, to cut off a party of horsemen visible on that side, near a house recently vacated by a Union man named Hale. Upon their approach, the rebels retired behind the south fence of a corn-field, and in the adjoining bush were soon visible swarms of men, whose fire threatened to be disastrous to the Home Guard cavalry should they approach. Through the thin stalks of the broom-corn, Capt. Wright had seen the ambuscade, and approached only near enough to draw their fire, when he withdrew, to induce them to follow him into the field, where he could charge upon them effectively. He repeated this movement three times, but the enemy were too wily, and would only remain behind the fence. Captains Plummer and Gilbert's companies of regulars were then ordered to attack them in the corn-field, which they did, and were driven back from the fence and followed by three thousand or thirty-five hundred rebels, before whom the two companies retired firing. Meanwhile the opposite hill had been stormed and taken by the gallant Missouri First and Osterhaus' battalion, and Totten's battery of six pieces had taken position on its summit and north side, and was belching forth its loudmouthed thunder, much to the distraction of  the opposing force, who had already been started upon a full retreat by the thick raining bullets of Colonel Blair's boys. Lieut. Dubois' battery, four pieces, had also opened on the eastern slope, firing upon a force which was retreating toward the southeast, on a road leading up the hill, which juts into the southwestern angle of the creek, and upon a battery placed near by to cover their retreat. Observing the danger of Capt. Plummer and his gallant men, Lieut. Dubois skilfully threw a few shells among their pursuers, which, bursting just as they reached the dense mass of humanity, scattered them wounded and lifeless upon the ground by scores, while the balance ran for dear life in every direction. Having driven a regiment of the enemy from one hill, the Missouri Volunteers encountered in the valley beyond another fresh and finely-equipped regiment of Louisianians, whom, after a bitter fight of forty-five minutes, they drove back and scattered, assisted by Capt. Lothrop and his regular rifle recruits. Totten and Dubois were, meanwhile, firing upon the enemies forming in the southwest angle of the valley, and upon their batteries on the opposite hill. The brave and undaunted First, with ranks already thinned by death, again moved forward up the second hill, just on the brow of which they met still another fresh regiment, which poured a terrible volley of musketry into their diminished numbers. Never yielding an inch, they gradually crowded their opposers backward, still backward, losing many of their own men, killed and wounded, but covering the ground thick with delegates from the ranks of the retreating foe. Lieut.-Col. Andrews, already wounded, still kept his position, urging the men onward by every argument in his power. Lieut. Murphy, when they once halted, wavering, stepped several paces forward, waving his sword in the air, and called successfully upon his men to follow him. Every captain and lieutenant did his duty nobly, and when they were recalled and replaced by the fresh Iowa and Kansas troops, many were the faces covered with powder, and dripping with blood. Capt. Gratz, gallantly urging his men forward against tremendous odds, fell mortally wounded and died soon after. Lieut. Brown, calling upon his men to “come forward,” fell with a severe scalp wound on the side of his head. Being carried to the rear, faint and bloody, he cheered on those brave defenders of the country whom he met, declaring that the enemy would yet be routed. Gen. Lyon meeting him pointed to him as a proper example for his comrades. Just then Gen. Greene's Tennessee regiment of cavalry, bearing a secession flag, charged down the western slope near the rear upon a few companies of the Kansas Second, who were guarding the ambulance wagons and wounded, and had nearly overpowered them, when one of Totten's howitzers was turned in that direction, and a few rounds of canister effectually dispersed them. The roar of the distant and near artillery now grew terrific; On all sides it was one continuous boom, while the music of the musket and rifle balls, flying like an aggravated swarm of bees around one's ears, was actually pleasant compared with the tremendous whiz of a cannon ball or the bursting of a shell in close proximity to one's dignity. Capt. Cole of the Missouri First had his lower jaw shattered by a bullet, but kept his place until the regiment was ordered to retire to give place to the First Iowas and some Kansas troops. Up to this time Gen. Lyon had received two wounds, and had his fine dappled gray shot dead under him, which is sufficient evidence that he had sought no place of safety for himself while he placed his men in danger. Indeed, he had already unwisely exposed himself. Seeing blood upon his hat, I inquired, “General, are you badly hurt?” to which he replied, “I think not seriously.” He had mounted another horse and was as busily engaged as ever. The Iowa First, under Lieutenant-Colonel Merrritt, and part of the Kansas troops were now ordered forward to take the place of the Missouris. The former had all along the march been “gay and happy,” passing the time with songs which were frequently joined in by the entire regiment, making together a chorus which could be heard for miles, and Gen. Lyon had often remarked that they had too much levity to do good fighting. Mutual friends suggested that they ought at least to have an opportunity to show themselves in case of an engagement, and many argued that they would fight the better from keeping in good spirits. Gen. Lyon at one time replied, “Yes, I will give them an opportunity, but very much fear they will disgrace themselves.” When they now came up to the front it was in splendid order and with a firm tread. The Missouri First had been almost overpowered, were almost exhausted from the severe fighting in which they had been engaged for over two hours, and had they not been relieved, must soon have fallen before the fourth body of fresh troops brought against them. The Iowas and Kansans now came upon the stage of action, and right well did they fight. The former fought like tigers, stood firm as trees, and saved us from utter and overwhelming defeat. Gen. Lyon saw their indomitable perseverance and bravery, and with almost his last breath praised their behavior in glowing terms. Major Porter was all along the line, cheering his men forward, even when bullets fell like hail, and scores were dropping all around him. Companies B, under Lieut. Graham, C, Capt. Mason, who was killed soon after entering into action, F, Capt. Wise, H, Capt. Gottschalk, I, Capt. Herron, and K, Capt. Cook, were in the very thickest of the fight. The three latter were afterward placed in ambush by Capt. Granger of the regulars. Lying down close to the brow of the hill, they waited for another attempt of the enemy to retake their  position. On they came, in overwhelming numbers. Not a breath was heard among the Iowas till their enemies came within thirty-five or forty feet, when they poured the contents of their Minie muskets into the enemy, and routed them, though suffering terribly themselves at the same time. Two Kansas companies afterward did the same thing on the eastern slope, and repulsed a vigorous attack of the enemy. Lyon now desired the men to prepare to make a bayonet charge immediately after delivering their next fire and the Iowas at once offered to go, and asked for a leader. On came the enemy. No time could be lost to select a leader. “I will lead you,” exclaimed Lyon. “Come on, brave men,” and with an unnatural glare in his eyes he had about placed himself in the van of the Iowas while Gen. Sweeney took a similar position to lead on a portion of the Kansas troops, when the enemy came only near enough to discharge their pieces, and retired before the destructive fire of our men. Before the galling fire from the enemy fell the brave Gen. Lyon. An hour earlier, when the enemy had nearly regained the heights from which the Missouri, Iowa, and Kansas Volunteers had partially expelled them, when Lieut.-Col. Andrews had been wounded and his horse killed under him, when Col. Deitzler and Col. Mitchell of the two Kansas regiments had both been disabled from wounds, when the General had lost his own horse and received two wounds himself, he exclaimed wildly to his Adjutant, Major Schofield, that the day was lost, but the Major said “No, let us try once again.” So the General gave orders to rally the men into line without reference to regiments, for the latter were so thoroughly cut to pieces as to make it an impossibility to get half of any one regiment together. Many were carrying their wounded comrades back to places of comparative safety, others were getting water, and many, very many, slept the sleep that knows no waking. The firing almost entirely ceased for half an hour. The enemy prepared for another onset, and our troops prepared to receive them. I passed where several horses, including the General's, lay dead and wounded, Dr. Comyn attending upon the mortally wounded Captain Gratz, and saw the dead of the enemy lying in scores over the ground, where the rebels had been repulsed. One of their wounded asked me for water, but I had none, and told him a man who would fight against his country poorly deserved water, when our own men were suffering for want of it. He replied that he had been forced into their army much against his will, and that he had been unable to get away, which might have been true, but was probably false. When Gen. Lyon fell he was picked up by his body-servant and one of his guard, and carried lifeless toward the ambulances, in one of which his body was placed to be conveyed to Springfield. Gen. Sweeney received a shot in his right leg, at the same fire, and limped back to the surgeon. The command now devolved upon Maj. Sturgis. There was no certainty that Siegel had been engaged in the fight at all, as our artillery had kept up such a constant roar that guns three miles distant were but little noticed. Under these circumstances, Maj. Sturgis had about determined to cross his command through the valley (the recent northern camp of the enemy) eastward, and, if possible, make a junction with Siegel on or near the Fayetteville road. Before he had time to give the necessary orders another attack from the enemy was announced by the volleys of musketry which were heard on our right. Maj. Sturgis directed his attention that way, and the enemy were again repulsed. Some twenty minutes now elapsed before the firing was resumed to any considerable extent on either side. I now determined to cross the creek, and see if I could find Col. Siegel, as a report had reached us that he was entirely cut to pieces. I had crossed the creek, and was passing through a portion of the corn-field adjacent to the spot where Dubois' shells had burst with such terrible effect upon the enemy, when the artillery and musketry again resounded on the hill behind me. I turned for a few moments to behold the terrible scene. The enemy, in overpowering numbers, were just on the southwestern brow of the hill, with five or six pieces of cannon, and it seemed as though surely the handful of their opposers would never be able to successfully resist them, much less drive them back. But all who had gone back with wounded, and for water, were rallied, and, after a sharp, severe, and unequalled contest, the enemy were again repulsed. Capt. Totten then reported his cannon ammunition nearly gone. This decided the course to be pursued, and Major Sturgis at once sent the ambulances toward the city, and Lieut. Dubois' battery back to the hill at the north end of the valley to protect the retreat. Then in good order, the remnant of the bravest body of soldiers in the United States commenced a retreat, even while they were victorious in battle. I had not proceeded far on the eastern side of the creek when I met the son of the Hon. John S. Phelps, who had left town upon hearing the cannonading, with a few mounted Kansas troops, and not discerning the exact position of the two armies, had busied himself taking prisoners on the Fayetteville road and west of it. When I met him he had captured half a dozen, including a negro belonging to an officer in a Louisiana regiment. Placing them upon the trail for our guards, and in charge of the Kansans, Phelps and myself proceeded, but found it unsafe to attempt to cross the Fayetteville road, and seeing the army retreating, we joined them and returned to the city. Gen. Siegel, upon hearing the battle opened by Gen. Lyon, at once began the work oh his side. He had already taken sixty prisoners, who, with several wagons, were engaged on farms in the vicinity of the camp digging potatoes,  picking and roasting ears of corn, gathering tomatoes and other vegetables for the rebel commissary department. Siegel advanced upon the enemy without being seen, taking their pickets prisoners except one, who was driven away from the camp, and drove their force from their southeastern camp, chasing them up as far as the Fayetteville road. Here he was met by a regiment uniformed very much like the Iowa First, coming over the summit from the northwest, and supposing it was the latter men, allowed them to come within a few paces of him, when they poured a murderous fire into his ranks and scattered his men like sheep. The enemy's cannon, also, now began against him, killing the horses attached to his own six pieces, and he was forced to retire leaving them behind. Capt. Flagg, seeing the position of affairs, took ropes, fastened them to one cannon and placed them in the hands of his prisoners, compelling them to draw the cannon off the field. One caisson also was saved, and another tipped into the creek. The others fell into the hands of the enemy. The cause of Siegel's repulse was owing very much to the behavior of Col. Salomon's men, who were three months men whose time had expired, and who, at request, had agreed to serve ten days longer. At the first severe fire, those, who in Carthage had fought like veterans, began to lament that they had lengthened their time of service, and wished they were with their families at home. Such men as these could not be brought up to fight well against overwhelming numbers, and their dissatisfaction communicated itself to many of Siegel's regiment. Notwithstanding these very adverse circumstances, Siegel brought in about one hundred prisoners and many horses. During the latter part of the battle the smoke from cannons and muskets, which hung like a dense cloud over the valley, was increased by the enemy setting fire to a train of thirty or forty wagons, for fear they would be captured by our advancing troops. The battle commenced about six o'clock, and continued, with but slight cessation, until eleven, at which time our ambulances, being filled with the wounded officers and others, commenced moving toward Springfield, under protection of Dubois' battery. The enemy, however, made no attempt to follow, which is sufficient proof that they were badly whipped. Government had been repeatedly urged to send Gen. Lyon reinforcements, at least sufficient to make up for the loss of three months, men who were about leaving or had already left; but, alas! none were furnished; while thousands in the North would gladly have gone and succored their friends, and saved the key of the Southwest from falling into the hands of the rebels. It was better for the Union cause that the battle should be fought, even against such great odds, than that Springfield should fall without a struggle. After retreating in good order nearly two miles, Totten's battery and three companies of infantry were posted as protection, and Dubois then ordered back with his battery. Still the, enemy made no demonstration, and not until Dubois was leaving the hill commanding the valley from the north did the enemy reoccupy the heights on the west, from which we had driven them. Then meeting no resistance from us they assembled in large numbers, and, raising their traitorous banner, made an effort at cheering. The enemy's force was not far from twenty-two thousand, all but about three thousand of whom were armed, and generally pretty well armed. According to Lieut.-Col. Horace H. Brand, of Booneville, who was taken prisoner in the early part of the day, they had twenty-one pieces of cannon and plenty of ammunition, though toward the last of the battle it is said the five guns, lost by Siegel, were also turned against us. The guns of the enemy were not worked with great rapidity or precision, not a ball coming within twenty feet of the ground for the first half hour, at about the end of which time, however, one ploughed up a terrible dust within fifteen feet of where I was standing. Adjutant Waldron, of the Iowa regiment, behaved gallantly, and received a slight wound. Capt. Burke, of the Missouri First, said to me in the morning: “My boys are going to fight to kill to-day, and if we don't whip the rebels, not one of my men shall leave the field alive.” His men did fight well, and the enemy were defeated. Burke himself was struck by a spent ball, then one tore through his blouse without injuring him, and another twice through his pants, barely scraping his knee. Major Schofield had a few of his whiskers trimmed off by a passing bullet, but was otherwise uninjured. Major Halderman, of the Kansas First, was slightly wounded. Two rebel surgeons were among those taken prisoners. One was released by Dr. Melcher, who afterward accompanied him to the rebel camp, and saw and conversed with McCulloch, Price, and Rains, and arranged for our wagons returning to gather the wounded and dead. The other surgeon was marched to Springfield before his position was known, when he was set at liberty and passed through our lines. He expressed himself satisfied with the treatment he had received, except being marched twelve miles out of his way. He invited Dr. Franklin and Dr. Davis of the regular hospital to accompany him to the rebel camp, assuring them of good treatment. Among the prisoners taken were ten or fifteen negroes, none of whom, I think, were armed, but simply acting as servants. On the return to Springfield we fell in with Col. Salomon, who said his men had acted badly, and that he could form no idea of the extent of their loss, but knew that it was serious. Had the enemy been at all enterprising, they could have caught hundreds who were wandering around in small squads, attempting to return to town, from Siegel's division, as well as harassed us to death on our retreat from the west side of the bloody field.  We reached Springfield in safety. Our pickets were stationed, and wagons sent for the balance of our wounded and dead. Since 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon the wounded have been pouring in. The regular hospital building, a very large, new court-house, and dwelling attached, has been filled up, receiving about 120. The Bailey House has been turned into a hospital and filled with at least as many more. The Methodist church has been similarly used, and still they come. But terrible as has been the slaughter on our side, it has been much more so on the side of the rebels. In the first place, none of their shells exploded in the midst of our ranks, as several of ours did among them in the cornfield among their cavalry, and in the valley. Our men we believe to be quite as good marksmen as theirs, and they had the advantage of firing into solid columns of the enemy. Dr. Schenck, who visited McCulloch and Rains after the battle, while gathering our wounded, says their loss is much heavier than ours; that while our dead were comparatively few, theirs were gathered in great heaps under the trees. He says that so many of their tents were destroyed by themselves, that not less than two-thirds of them would have to bivouac under trees and by camp-fires for the night. Where so many daring acts and valorous deeds were performed, it were almost impossible to single any one as worthy of especial notice. Among the latter, however, were Capts. Cavender and Miller, members of the ex-Legislature, Capt. Granger of the regulars, Major Porter of Iowa, Major Cloud of Kansas, Capt. Wood of the Kansas cavalry, and Capt. Wright of the Home Guards. Col. Bates, of the Iowa First, who had been confined for several days with a fever and diarrhea, mounted his horse and attempted to go to the field of battle on the evening preceding it, but was compelled to return to town, much to his regret, after marching two or three miles with the column. On the march out many of those who now lie in their graves were joyously singing and feeling as gay as larks. Among the songs I heard were the Iowas' favorite, which relates the doings of Jackson and Price at Booneville, how Lyon hived Camp Jackson, the chorus concluding:
Bound for the happy land of Canaan!the Kansas melody,
So let the wide world wag as it will,and many of a religious character. We took 400 horses and 69 prisoners. One of the latter was brought in from a squad of five rebels by your correspondent, who at that time was nearly hoarse from rallying the troops, regardless of any thing like personal danger. On the return to town, many were the anxious inquiries made after friends and comrades, and lucky was the man who made successful attempts to find and see a wounded brother. Gen. Lyon's body has been carefully laid out, and will be embalmed and sent to his friends in Connecticut. Our loss will probably reach two hundred killed, and six or seven hundred wounded. Since arriving in town, the military authorities have decided not to lose a moment, but to start at once for Rolla. They will leave before daylight. The baggage train is about five miles long, and if the rebels do not attack and secure it, they will be less able to pursue than we imagine. A considerable amount of powder has just been destroyed by the ordnance officer, because of no means of transportation. The Iowa regiment have also burned a portion of their baggage. On one or two occasions the enemy raised Union flags and cheered, causing us to fear we were firing upon Col. Siegel. The battle would otherwise have been much more disastrous to the rebels.
We'll be gay and happy still,