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[497] constitutionally members, citizens and subjects of States, and the Federal law was laid on them and their obedience commanded by States. [See Art. IV, § 2; Art. III, § 2; Am. Ed. XI; Rep. of Rep. 4th Ed., Part V, ch. VII.] The Democratic caucus resolution that our people are citizens of two governments, owing allegiance to both, is not even respectable sophistry, let alone truth.

V. All voters belong originally and absolutely to the States, and all the representatives, senators, and presidential electors are freely ‘chosen’ or ‘appointed,’ by the said States, from their own members or subjects, and have title to office and right to act in Federal matters only through the commissions and under the seals of their respective States. In short, and obviously, all the life and validity of the Constitution come from States; all the ‘powers’ of it are ‘delegated’ by them and ‘vested’ in its ‘governments,’ and all its operations of every kind and character are theirs — they themselves really being ‘the Government’ of the country for general affairs

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