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[522] and it was only after three hours struggle that the two divisions were enabled to drive the dismounted cavalry and Mahone's small brigade, and then only because they were out of ammunition. Munford's entire force did not exceed a thousand men.

Stuart reports that General Semmes, who held a gap next below (probably a mile off), rendered no assistance of any kind. General Howell Cobb, who had been loitering for hours on the other side of the pass, at last arrived with two regiments, and requested Munford to post them. While he was doing so, in a second line in rear of his first, the infantry of the first, whose ammunition had given out, fell back. At this, Cobb's regiments broke in panic and went pell-mell over the mountain, carrying back with them the rest of Cobb's brigade, which was moving to their assistance. Slocum's advance, Cobb's fugitives and the dismounted cavalry all arrived at about the same time, in the dark, at the forks of the Rohrersville road. Stuart came up and assisted in rallying and reforming the infantry. A line was formed across Pleasant Valley, and Franklin's further progress stopped.

Turner's Gap is six miles north of Crampton's. It is passed by the National road in a series of easy grades. The mountains on either side command the approaches to the pass. A mile west of Middletown at Koogle's bridge, a country road leaves the broad turnpike on the left or south side of the pike, and passes over South Mountain, a mile south of Turner's. It is the road which had been cut by Braddock, in his campaign, and is now known as the old Sharpsburg road. It is steep on the eastern approach; on the north of Turner's, the mountain ridge subsides to an opening or recess between two spurs. A country road runs up this ravine, or recess, and turning up the mountain ascends, and passing along the side near the summit, joins the National road in Turner's Gap, a hundred yards or so from the top. McClellan is in error in calling this the old Hagerstown road, and has caused the error to be perpetuated by all subsequent writers. The old Stage road and trail from Frederick to Hagerstown passes the South Mountain six miles north of Turner's Gap.

It was D. H. Hill's business to hold the gap until the reduction of Harpers Ferry should be effected. Stuart had led him to believe on the night of the 13th, that only two Federal brigades were advancing on the National road, so he ordered Colquitt and Garland back from Boonsboroa, three miles off, and put them in the pass. Early next morning he ordered up Anderson's brigade. It only got there in

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