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[123] And this is the way the rebel army (with the exception of a few of the most important officers) sleeps. Every thing that will trammel or impede the movement of the army is discarded, no matter what the consequences may be to the men. In conversation with one of the officers, I mentioned about the want of tents in his army, and asked whether any bad effects were apparent from it. He said he thought not. On the contrary, he considered the army in better condition now than ever before. Granting the truth of what the officer said about the condition of the rebel army, I very much doubt the correctness of his conclusions. The present good condition of the rebel army is more likely to be due to the following circumstances: First, the army has been lying still all winter, under good shelter; has been tolerably well fed and clothed, and in this way has had a chance to recuperate after the fatiguing campaigns of last summer. Second, most of the weakly men, who could not stand a day's march without being sent to the rear, have been either discharged or have died, thus leaving a smaller portion of those remaining liable to disease. Third, since that portion of the rebel army (Ewell's corps) moved from behind Fredericksburgh, on the fourth of June last, it has been favored with remarkably fine weather; has been stimulated with almost uninterrupted success in its movements; has been marching through a rich and fertile country, and, by levying on the inhabitants of which, the soldiers have been able to procure an abundance of good wholesome food, better, perhaps, than they had for many months. These, and not the want of tents, are probably the causes which give to the rebel army its present healthy tone. Under ordinary circumstances, I have no doubt the want of shelter would prove rather a detriment to the army than otherwise.

In further conversation with the Louisiana officer, I ascertained that this was the corps which moved down through the Shenandoah Valley, surprised Milroy at Winchester, and was the first to cross the Potomac at Shepherdstown into Maryland. He informed me that his own and the North-Carolina brigade were armed entirely with Enfield rifles taken at Winchester after Milroy's retreat. In speaking of our soldiers, the same officer remarked: “They are too well fed, too well clothed, and have far too much to carry.” That our men are too well fed I do not believe, neither that they are too well clothed; that they have too much to carry I can very well believe, after witnessing the march of the army of the Potomac to Chancellorsville. Each man had eight days rations to carry, besides sixty rounds of ammunition, musket, woollen blanket, rubber blanket, overcoat, extra shirt, drawers, socks, and sheltertent, amounting in all to about sixty pounds. Think of men, (and boys too,) staggering along under such a load, at the rate of fifteen to twenty miles a day.

. . . . . . . , .

About nine o'clock Monday night, the guards were withdrawn from the hotels and liquor shops, and the whole of the North-Carolina brigade shortly after left the city in the same direction as Gordon's brigade. On Tuesday morning, about four o'clock the last remaining brigade passed through the city with flags flying and band playing, and took the road to Carlisle. The other two brigades it was supposed had gone off in the direction of Gettysburgh.

The city was now clear of rebels, except some stragglers who purposely staid behind, or were too drunk to go with their commands.

While General Early scrupulously kept his agreement with the citizens of York, as to the protection of private property in the city, he did not prevent his troopers from visiting the farms outside the city and taking such horses and mules as they required. The rebel cavalry, as a general thing, are splendidly mounted, better, I think, than the Union cavalry, and their free and easy manner of procuring fresh horses explains it.

Mr. Gall not being able to communicate with us by telegraph, except from Baltimore, reported in person, and was immediately ordered to join Dr. Steiner at Frederick.

The anticipated battle was now near at hand. Supplies were accumulated at New-York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. Mr. Knapp was at Philadelphia, and Mr. O. C. Bullard at Baltimore, both with efficient assistants ready to respond to all demands.

The supply train following the army had reached Frederick City, and was under the orders of Dr. Steiner. Its subsequent operations during the battle week I give in the words of Dr. Steiner from his report already referred to.

June 28.--The supply train, with stores from Washington, reported to me during the day, being in charge of Messrs. Bush, Hoag, and Clampitt. Desiring to retain Clampitt to assist me in my work in Frederick, I detached him from the train, which then started off, accompanied by Messrs. Hoag and Bush. The benefits afforded by these supplies to the wounded, to whom they were distributed under fire, during the battles of Gettysburgh, July second and third, by Mr. Hoag, cannot be expressed in words, and the receipted requisitions of the surgeons who employed these stores on that occasion, are sufficient evidence of the utility of being prepared for such emergencies.

On Saturday, July fourth, two wagons reported to me from Washington, being accompanied by Dr. Alexander McDonald, (Sanitary Inspector,) and Messrs. James Gall, Junior, and Rev. Mr. Scandlin, (relief agents.) Having been informed that a car-load of supplies had been forwarded to Westminster, Maryland, I ordered one wagon, under the direction of Mr. Gall, to that place, with the view of having it then filled with supplies and thence to proceed to Gettysburgh. The second wagon was loaded from the Frederick storehouse, and despatched under the charge of Dr. McDonald, via Emmetsburgh to Gettysburgh. Dr. McDonald was provided with instructions to take charge of our operations in

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