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[127] from our experience, was subdivided into general and special relief. The first of these was to be extended by issues from our store-house directly to corps hospitals, in bulk, according to the ascertained necessities, and the latter took the direction of attending to those of the wounded — by far the greater number — who, capable of being transported from the field of battle, were daily removed, until only the more serious cases remained. I have already given the history of the store-house and lodge. The tabulated statement of the issues from the former, and the number assisted and relieved at the latter, will tell how well the organization worked. Few left the region of Gettysburgh without receiving some material aid from us, either in food or clothing.

Our trained permanent corps rendered this work easy and immediate. This would not have been possible, in the same time, with a body of men unaccustomed to and ignorant of the work. The large number of volunteers who came to our assistance, under the direction of those already familiar with the work, fell readily into the line of duty, and soon became efficient co-workers.

The labor of inquiry required the daily visitation of the hospitals, consultation with the medical officers as to the most efficient manner in which we could aid them, the character and quantity of the supplies most needed, the daily movement in the population of the hospitals under their command, with the character and severity of the injuries, and all such information in relation to the disposition of the wounded as would assist us in making our preparations.

Beside the visits of inquiry to the hospitals, a list of the names and wounds of all the inmates of each hospital was taken and forwarded to the office of the Hospital Directory in Washington, and we held ourselves in readiness to attend to messages of inquiry sent to us from any direction, in regard to any wounded man in these hospitals. This work was performed by Mr. Dooley, from the Directory office. Messrs. Stille, Struthers, Hazlehurst, Dullus, Beitler, and Tracy, from Philadelphia, and Messrs. Hosford, Myers, and Braman, from New-York, assisted in this labor, as well as at the lodge, and in attending to special cases.

The duty of visiting the confederate hospitals was assigned to Dr. Gordon Winslow, who reported to me soon after I arrived. The following communication, addressed by him to me, will give briefly the result of his inquiries:

Gettysburgh, July 22, 1863.
sir: Agreeably to your instructions, I have inspected the several confederate hospitals in the vicinity of Gettysburgh, and have indicated, on the accompanying map, the locality, division, general who was in command, surgeon in charge, and number of wounded.

It appears that the aggregate of wounded, at the time of my visits, was five thousand four hundred and fifty-two, occupying some twenty-four (24) separate camps, over an area of some twelve miles. The wounds, in a large proportion of cases, are severe.

Amputations and resections are frequent. The corps of confederate surgeons are, as a body, intelligent and attentive. The hospitals are generally in barns, outhouses, and dilapidated tents. Some few cases are in dwelling. I cannot speak favorably of their camp police. Often there is a deplorable want of cleanliness. Especially in barns and outhouses, vermin and putrid matter are disgustingly offensive. As fast as means of transportation can be had, those who are capable of being removed will be placed in more comfortable quarters. Some hundreds are being removed daily. Every provision is made by the Sanitary Commission for their comfort during their stay at the depot lodge, and those who are placed directly in the cars are furnished wholesome food. I am pleased to report that the surgeons have in every instance spoken in the highest terms of praise of the efforts made for their relief and comfort.


In this connection, I may state that subsequent to these visits, Dr. Winslow procured the signature of every confederate surgeon to a petition to General Lee for the immediate and unconditional release of Dr. McDonald, Mr. Scandlin, Mr. Brengle, Leonard Brink, and Moses Gardner, who had been taken prisoners while acting in their humane office, as non-combatants, and ready to extend assistance to all wounded alike. This petition has been forwarded through the proper authorities, with the advice and consent of our own officers for the exchange of prisoners. A month has elapsed, but so far no notice has been taken by the confederate officers of the wishes of their surgeons in our hands.

The hospitals containing our own wounded were visited by Messrs. Johnson, Biddle, Murray, Paige, Gall, Fairchild, and myself. Some of them were also visited by yourself and Mr. Knapp, who separately came to Gettysburgh, and accompanied me in my rounds.

The hospital organizations were mostly in tents, taking some farmer's house and barn as a nucleus.2 For several days immediately succeeding

1 The hospitals visited by Dr. Winslow were situated as below, and contained the number of wounded as indicated in the following table:

Location. Division. Surgeon. No.
Cashtown, Gen. Parine's, Dr. Wilson, 171
On Chambersburgh Road, Gen. Porcher's, Dr. Ward, 700
On Mummasburgh Road, Gen. Rhodes's, Dr. Hayes, 800
In Penn. College, Gen. Heth's, Dr. Smiley, 700
Hunterstown Road, Gen. Johnson's, Dr. Whitehead, 811
Fairfield, 50

Fairfield Road, Part of Gen. Johnson's, Dr. Stewart, 135

Fairfield Road, Gen. Early's, Dr. Potts, 259
Fairfield Road, Gen. Anderson's, Dr. Mines, 111
Fairfield Road, Gen. McLaws's, Dr. Patterson, 700
Fairfield Road, Gen. Hood's, Dr. Means, 515
Total, 452

2 The First corps hospital was divided. A portion was in the town, occupying several churches and the court-house. These buildings contained the wounded of the battle of July first. The number estimated, including those in private houses, was four hundred to four hundred and fifty. The second portion was about two and a half miles from the town on the Baltimore pike. The First division was in and about the White church and Lightner's house; the Second division in and about Peter Conover's house; and the Third division had Jonathan Young's house for its centre. There were in these divisions two thousand three hundred and seventy-nine wounded, of whom two hundred and sixty were confederates. Dr. Ward was the surgeon in charge.

The Second corps hospital was situated on the banks of Rock Creek, in tents, about eighty rods north of the house indicated on the map as that of Isaac Schriever. It contained about four thousand five hundred wounded, of whom one thousand were rebels. Dr. Justin Dwinelle was the surgeon in charge. There were three divisions consolidated.

The Third corps hospital was on high ground south of Schwartz's house, about one hundred rods above the junction of White's Creek with Rock Creek, on Schwietzel's farm. It contained two thousand five hundred and fifty wounded; of these, two hundred and fifty-nine were rebels. Dr. Hildreth was surgeon in charge. There were two divisions only, under separate organization, but remote from each other only by a narrow ravine.

The Fifth corps hospital was in three divisions. The first division was on Mr. Little's farm, north of the house and south of White's Creek, and about one hundred rods east of Third corps. The second division was south of Mrs. Jesse Clapsaddle's house, across Lousy run, about one hundred rods south of White's Creek. The third division was about half a mile west of Two Taverns, on Jesse Werley's farm. This division hospital was the most remote of all the Union hospitals from the town of Gettysburgh. They contained together one thousand four hundred wounded, including seventy-five rebels. Dr. Clark, surgeon in charge.

The three divisions of the Sixth corps hospital were, the first, about the house of John Frastle, near Peach Orchard, and the Second and Third divisions in tents near by. There were three hundred inmates. Dr. Chamberlain, surgeon in charge.

The Eleventh corps hospital occupied the house and farm of George Spangler. The divisions were consolidated under the charge of Dr. Armstrong. It contained one thousand nine hundred wounded, of whom one hundred were said to be confederates.

The Twelfth corps hospital was under the charge of Dr. Ernest Goodman. Its three divisions, under separate organizations, were together around the house of George Bushman. It contained one thousand one hundred and thirty-one wounded, including one hundred and twenty-five rebels.

The cavalry corps hospital was in town, and occupied the Presbyterian church on Baltimore street, and the two school-houses in the immediate vicinity. It was under the charge of Dr. Rulison, and the three buildings contained three hundred of our wounded.

These figures are approximative only, as that was all we sought for at the time. The number of wounded whose wants — beyond those that a beneficent government cared for — we were anxious to supply, can be stated briefly as follows:

1st Corps (2 portions) 2,519 Union, 260 confederates, 2,779
2d Corps 3,500 Union, 1000 confederates, 4,500
3d Corps 2,300 Union, 250 confederates, 2,550
5th Corps 1,325 Union, 75 confederates, 1,400
6th Corps 300 Union, 300
11th Corps 1,800 Union, 100 confederates, 1,900
12th Corps 1,006 Union, 125 confederates, 1,181
Cavalry Corps 300 Union, 300
Total 13,050 1810 14,860

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