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[241] effect. Probably the greatest carnage of this bloody day was produced by the incessant discharges of double-shotted canister from the bronze Napoleons of Martin's battery. He had taken up a position in the hollow, between two small hills. The enemy advanced from the opposite side in solid column, on the double-quick, with arms at right shoulder shift, not being able to see the battery until they reached the crest of the hill, within a hundred yards of it, when Martin opened a bitter surprise upon them, sweeping them from the field like chaff before a storm. Twice again they formed and advanced, their officers behaving splendidly. But it was useless, Martin's fierce leaden rain being too terrible to withstand. The advance of the fresh troops having checked the enemy, and night coming on, the conflict ceased, and both parties quietly lay on their arms.

The brigades of Gens. French and Meagher did not get into action. They formed in the rear of our broken columns, and did excellent service in checking the flight of many panic-stricken stragglers and demoralized troops. The enemy quickly perceived the arrival of those fresh troops, and being at the same time subject to a galling fire of canister from Griffin's and Martin's batteries, soon withdrew his lines into the woods whence he had issued, and quiet soon prevailed. But in almost less time than it takes to write it, a scene of indescribable excitement, of mingled confusion and direful disorder had been obliterated-yes, literally crushed, and comparative order restored out of almost chaos, by the prompt, energetic and fearless action of brave officers. As the rushing and retreating tide began to pour precipitately towards the bridge, a dozen officers in my own sight drew their sabres and pistols, placed themselves in front of the straggling crowd, and by every device that physical and mental nature could invent, rallied and formed column after column of men from the broken mass that swept over the plain.

There are some facts which my friend did not incorporate in his sketch. But there was no time or opportunity for him or others to indite history in the midst of public distress. Calamity brooded over all. Few had opportunity to rest, not many could find wherewith to appease hunger, and mind as well as body was afflicted. Both were jaded and reduced. Losses we were obliged to estimate. Official reports there were none. Of material, Fitz-John Porter's command lost twenty pieces of artillery, and the arms, with accoutrements, which belonged to men who were lost. Of dead, wounded and missing, there were seven thousand or upwards. Col. Edmund Pendleton, of a Louisiana regiment, (Col. Pendleton formerly resided in Cincinnati,) who was captured on Monday, (June thirtieth,) assured me that on that day the rebels captured four thousand five hundred prisoners. Our dead he estimated, from examination of the field, at three hundred. Of the wounded there is no account. It is reported that the rebel loss is still more awful.

It is claimed that the battle was badly managed. This is no time for criticism; besides, the data is not absolutely reliable. It is certain we were beaten in strategy and in grand tactics. Indeed, I am compelled to admit that the enemy there, as elsewhere, displayed skill in the science of battles, which does not always distinguish our leaders. They seldom risk battle with insufficient forces, and they handle masses in a masterly manner. Thus on Friday, while our men stood and fought in line for hours without respite, the rebel leaders incessantly rushed in fresh troops, relieving those who were jaded or beaten, so that it was painfully apparent, before our brave fellows gave way, that they must finally break before that ever-surging tide. One other error was perceptible. Our officers seemed to fight not so much to win victory as to display the courage and endurance of our soldiers. Instead of standing fast in secure cover of forests, that the enemy might be compelled to fight on our terms, they advanced into the open fields and were cut down by scores by the more crafty foe. But we were beaten. It was a melancholy satisfaction to know that we occupied the field of battle after the conflict was ended. We had about thirty thousand men engaged, perhaps thirty-five thousand. The enemy had four divisions employed, besides Jackson's admirable army of thirty thousand to thirty-five thousand disciplined troops.

We had fourteen batteries--eighty-four pieces — in the field, and often not half could be used to advantage. Martin's, Tidball's, and Weeden's were most serviceable. Tidball's was on the extreme right, and, to the enemy, was an object of special attention. Lieut. Dennison, son of ex-Governor Dennison, had charge of one section of the battery, and his captain complimented him for his conduct. The conduct of the entire force that day was admirable. The regulars, who had previously complained of restraint, had full scope, and they reestablished their ancient fame.

Duryea's Zouaves, clad in crimson breeches and red skull-caps, emulated their regular comrades, winning the admiration of the army. But they suffered terribly, their conspicuous uniforms drawing upon them an awful fire wherever they appeared in the field. But volunteers and regulars alike won glory on that bloody field.

Meantime, while tumult raged over in the forest, excitement was scarcely less thrilling in front. Battle was imminent on the entire line all the day long. There were incessant flurries on the picket-lines and no respite for any. Men stood in line of battle at the breastworks from daybreak — well, they have been under arms and under fire ever since, as they had been during the twenty-seven preceding days and nights. The world never witnessed more devoted courage.

Smith's division at Gouldin's, on the edge of Chickahominy valley, and Sedgwick's on his left, occupied the most sensitive points on the whole line, since Fair Oaks. They threatened the key of the rebel position before Richmond. Hancock's and Burns's brigades held the most exposed lines. The former had taken a critical position


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