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[37] that the cost for wood was reduced one-half and other expenses lessened. The University takes an honorable place also in the manufacture of iron, for the second largest iron-mill in the Confederacy was owned and controlled by Robert R. and John L. Bridgers, both alumni, the former being also a member of the Confederate Congress. There was danger of an iron famine in the Confederacy, and at the request of the government the Messrs. Bridgers purchased the High Shoals iron property in Lincoln, Gaston, and Cleveland counties, N. C., and rebuilt the furnaces, forges, rolling-mills, nail factories, and foundaries. The States of North and South Carolina became, to a large extent, dependent on these mills, and they did also much government work.

It was through such extraordinary measures as these that the necessities of life and the sinews of war were supplied to the people of North Carolina. This had a reflex action upon them, and kept up their interest and enthusiasm throughout the fearful struggle; their esprit de corps was little altered by the reverses of the battle-field. They had confidence in their government at home. The soldier in the field felt that his wife and children would not be allowed to suffer while his State was able to provide. This gave him renewed strength for battle and caused him to show that magnificent heroism which has been for a generation the wonder and the admiration of the world. But this is at best but only a partial reason for the tremendous weight thrown by North Carolina into the scale in behalf of the Confederacy. No one man is, perhaps, so much responsible for this period of the heroic as this son of our University, Zebulon Baird Vance. And never was there a greater Landstrum, a more universal leve en masse than was seen in this quiet, slow moving old State during those four tremendous years. The white population of North Carolina in 1860 was 629,942; her military population was 115,369, being the third in rank in this respect. Her proper proportion of troops according to population was about one-tenth. She furnished in reality about one-fifth of the troops of the Confederacy. On a conservative estimate she sent to the Confederate armies 125,000 men, or an average of about one soldier to each white family. She furnished 10,000 more troops than she had military population in 1860. More than one-fourth of the Confederates killed in battle were North Carolinians; nearly one-fourth of those who died of wounds were North Carolinians; one-third of those who died of disease were North Carolinians; two-sevenths of the total losses of the Confederacy were North Carolinians. She lost 40,275 men, or about thirtytwo

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