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[19] I will admit that rhetoric sometimes substitutes falsehood for truth, but I will not allow that it does so because its opinions are false, since there is all the difference between holding a certain opinion oneself and persuading someone else to adopt an opinion. For instance a general frequently makes use of falsehood: Hannibal when hemmed in by Fabius persuaded his enemy that he was in retreat by [p. 335] tying brushwood to the horns of oxen, setting fire to them by night and driving the herds across the mountains opposite.1 But though he deceived Fabius, he himself was fully aware of the truth.

1 See Livy, XXII. xvi.

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