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[112] and too grievous burden. It was a question of the commissariat, to a very great extent, that carried the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac. This was so palpably the case that many believe it to have been the main or sole object of the expedition. There was no loss of morale on the Confederate side, for every one knew that in two of the three days collisions it had the advantage, and while our losses were serious and such that we could ill afford, the Federals were so weakened that we were permitted to retrace our steps with little or no annoyance, and military operations in Virginia were so feeble that General Lee, although closely confronting Meade's army, detached Longstreet and sent him to Georgia, where he aided in winning the brilliant victory of Chickamauga, and did not return to Virginia till March, 1864.

It is known to those who are well informed that accident rather than design brought the two armies in contact at Gettysburg. General Stuart, in command of the cavalry, remained on the east side of the Blue Ridge, holding the passes, while the main army marched down the Valley on the west side to the Potomac. He was instructed to place his command on the right of our army as soon as the Federals should cross the river and move north, and ordered to lose no time in doing so, and he was expected to give notice as soon as Hooker crossed the Potomac. As no report had been made it was believed that Hooker was still in Virginia, and, under this impression, orders were issued to move on Harrisburg. Ewell, with two of his divisions, Johnson's and Rodes', had reached Carlisle June 27th. The other division, Early's, was moving towards York. On the same day Longstreet and Hill had marched through Chambersburg and halted at Fayetteville, six miles east of it, on the Gettysburg pike.

During the night of the 28th a scout reported that Hooker had crossed the Potomac and was moving north and towards South mountain. Without his cavalry, General Lee could not divine the purpose of the enemy, but he determined, with the view of guarding his communications with Virginia and to check the advance west, to concentrate his forces east of the mountains.

Heth's division, of Hill's corps, was moved over the mountain to Cashtown, eight miles west of Gettysburg, on the 29th. The next day Pender's division, of the same corps, followed, and one

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