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[699] interruption until a point eight miles south of Culpepper was reached. There it encountered General Jackson, who had been dispatched with Ewell's and Hill's divisions, and his own under General Taliaferro, to resist this new combination; and on the 9th of August the battle of Cedar run was fought, resulting in a decisive repulse to the Federal van-guard of twenty-eight thousand men under General Banks. About the same time General Lee detected the transfer of McClellan's forces from the Lower James to the Potomac, and at once set the remainder of his army in motion for the Rappahannock-hoping to overwhelm Pope while the bulk of his reinforcements were yet en route. Leaving McLaws, D. H. Hill, and Walker in front of Richmond, General Lee joined Jackson with the divisions of Longstreet, Jones, Hood, and R. H. Anderson on the 19th of August, and on the same day Pope, in the meantime strengthened by Reno's corps, of Burnside's army, commenced a full retreat for the north branch of the Rappahannock. Jackson, Hill, and Ewell were at once started in eager pursuit, striking for the upper fords of the Rappahannock, in order to pass upon the flank of the enemy, and having for an objective point Manassas Junction. Longstreet, in the meantime, occupied Pope's attention at the fords along the river, delaying him with threatening demonstrations to gain time for Jackson's establishment well in his rear. The march of the latter, for the first four days, was a continual skirmish. At Warrenton Springs, the enemy were found in force, and it was found necessary to amuse him there while a still larger detour to the left should be made. On the 25th, Longstreet occupied the ford at that point, and Jackson, now free from embarrassment, moved swiftly northward, crossed the Bull Run mountains at Thoroughfare gap, and, on the night of the 26th, effected the capture of Manassas Junction, with Trimble's Brigade of Stuart's cavalry. He was now, with three divisions, directly across the path of Pope to Washington, and was destined through the two following days to sustain, unaided, the onsets of a vast army. First, on the 27th, the attack fell upon Ewell, who had been left at Bristow Station. Finding from the constant pouring in of fresh troops that the whole Federal army was upon him, that officer skilfully withdrew to Manassas. That night Jackson formed his little army across Pope's line of advance, his left on Bull run, his right resting on Thoroughfare gap, through which Longstreet's march was anxiously expected. This position was full of peril, and the masses of the enemy were now hastening up to increase its imminence. McClellan's corps were now arriving upon the ground, and unless Longstreet should soon appear, the

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