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The promptness and heartiness with which this call was responded to, showed the depth of the popular feeling on the subject. At nine o'clock, on the morning after the riot, the City Council met and appropriated half a million dollars for the defense of the city. The directors of the banks also met on the same morning and volunteered to lend the city half a million dollars at once. From this fact alone it may be seen that the feeling was not confined to a clique or even a small majority of the citizens. Almost every respectable citizen, whatever his political convictions, shared in the earnest opposition to any further encroachment upon the soil of Maryland from the North. Early that morning the Confederate flag had been displayed from Taylor's building, the rendezvous of the Maryland Guard, and had been greeted with vociferous cheers. The city was given over to excitement throughout the day. There was a rumor of a projected raid upon Fort McHenry, several miles below the city, where a number of troops were quartered, but a strong military force was sent out by the civil authorities and the attack was prevented. The populace was further excited by the arrival of companies of militia from the counties, who came to defend the city against the Northern myrmidons. About half-past 2 o'clock that afternoon the mob broke into a public hall belonging to the German Turners, who were supposed to be Northern in their sympathies. The furniture was destroyed and a large quantity of liquor which was found there was appropriated by the crowd. A recruiting office was opened at the City Hall, under the nose of the Mayor, and large numbers of persons enrolled themselves for the defense of the city. As the men were enrolled, they were formed into companies of forty each. They selected their own officers, and joined what regiments they pleased.

There is little doubt that the formation of this military force prevented untold violence and bloodshed. In the first place, it gave the hungry, roving mob something to do, and thus distracted it for the time being. In the second place, it brought the element of disorder under a responsible head, and gave the city authorities an opportunity to recover themselves and to reassert their authority. Had the mob been left to itself, there is no telling what might have happened. As it was, the city, for many days, was in imminent danger, and it was only by seeming to co-operate with the riotous elements that the Mayor and his subordinates were enabled to prevent pillage and destruction.

Partly as a sop to the multitude, and partly to prevent the possibility of any immediate recurrence of the disturbance, it was

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